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You must disable the constraint before truncating the table. An exception is that you can truncate the table if the integrity constraint is self-referential.
You cannot truncate the parent table of a reference-partitioned table. You must first drop the reference-partitioned child table. This clause permits materialized view master tables to be reorganized through export or import without affecting the ability of primary key materialized views defined on the master to be fast refreshed.
To support continued fast refresh of primary key materialized views, the materialized view log must record primary key information.
This is the default. This space can subsequently be used by other objects in the tablespace. Oracle Database also sets the NEXT storage parameter to the size of the last extent removed from the segment in the truncation process.
Storage values are not reset to the values when the table or cluster was created. This space can subsequently be used only by new data in the table or cluster resulting from insert or update operations.
Some file systems have been designed to be used for specific applications. For example, the ISO file system is designed specifically for optical discs.
File systems can be used on numerous different types of storage devices that use different kinds of media. As of hard disk drives have been key storage devices and are projected to remain so for the foreseeable future .
Other kinds of media that are used include SSDs , magnetic tapes , and optical discs. Some file systems are used on local data storage devices ;  others provide file access via a network protocol for example, NFS ,  SMB , or 9P clients.
Some file systems are "virtual", meaning that the supplied "files" called virtual files are computed on request such as procfs and sysfs or are merely a mapping into a different file system used as a backing store.
The file system manages access to both the content of files and the metadata about those files. It is responsible for arranging storage space; reliability, efficiency, and tuning with regard to the physical storage medium are important design considerations.
Before the advent of computers the term file system was used to describe a method of storing and retrieving paper documents.
A file system consists of two or three layers. Sometimes the layers are explicitly separated, and sometimes the functions are combined.
The logical file system is responsible for interaction with the user application. The logical file system "manage[s] open file table entries and per-process file descriptors.
The second optional layer is the virtual file system. The third layer is the physical file system. This layer is concerned with the physical operation of the storage device e.
It processes physical blocks being read or written. It handles buffering and memory management and is responsible for the physical placement of blocks in specific locations on the storage medium.
The physical file system interacts with the device drivers or with the channel to drive the storage device. File systems allocate space in a granular manner, usually multiple physical units on the device.
The file system is responsible for organizing files and directories , and keeping track of which areas of the media belong to which file and which are not being used.
This results in unused space when a file is not an exact multiple of the allocation unit, sometimes referred to as slack space.
For a byte allocation, the average unused space is bytes. The size of the allocation unit is chosen when the file system is created.
Choosing the allocation size based on the average size of the files expected to be in the file system can minimize the amount of unusable space.
Frequently the default allocation may provide reasonable usage. Choosing an allocation size that is too small results in excessive overhead if the file system will contain mostly very large files.
File system fragmentation occurs when unused space or single files are not contiguous. As a file system is used, files are created, modified and deleted.
When a file is created the file system allocates space for the data. Some file systems permit or require specifying an initial space allocation and subsequent incremental allocations as the file grows.
As files are deleted the space they were allocated eventually is considered available for use by other files. This creates alternating used and unused areas of various sizes.
This is free space fragmentation. When a file is created and there is not an area of contiguous space available for its initial allocation the space must be assigned in fragments.
When a file is modified such that it becomes larger it may exceed the space initially allocated to it, another allocation must be assigned elsewhere and the file becomes fragmented.
A filename or file name is used to identify a storage location in the file system. Most file systems have restrictions on the length of filenames.
In some file systems, filenames are not case sensitive i. Most modern file systems allow filenames to contain a wide range of characters from the Unicode character set.
However, they may have restrictions on the use of certain special characters, disallowing them within filenames; those characters might be used to indicate a device, device type, directory prefix, file path separator, or file type.
File systems typically have directories also called folders which allow the user to group files into separate collections. This may be implemented by associating the file name with an index in a table of contents or an inode in a Unix-like file system.
Directory structures may be flat i. The first file system to support arbitrary hierarchies of directories was used in the Multics operating system.
Other bookkeeping information is typically associated with each file within a file system. The length of the data contained in a file may be stored as the number of blocks allocated for the file or as a byte count.
A file system stores all the metadata associated with the file—including the file name, the length of the contents of a file, and the location of the file in the folder hierarchy—separate from the contents of the file.
Most file systems store the names of all the files in one directory in one place—the directory table for that directory—which is often stored like any other file.
Many file systems put only some of the metadata for a file in the directory table, and the rest of the metadata for that file in a completely separate structure, such as the inode.
Most file systems also store metadata not associated with any one particular file. Such metadata includes information about unused regions— free space bitmap , block availability map —and information about bad sectors.
Often such information about an allocation group is stored inside the allocation group itself. Some file systems provide for user defined attributes such as the author of the document, the character encoding of a document or the size of an image.
Some file systems allow for different data collections to be associated with one file name. These separate collections may be referred to as streams or forks.
Some file systems maintain multiple past revisions of a file under a single file name; the filename by itself retrieves the most recent version, while prior saved version can be accessed using a special naming convention such as "filename;4" or "filename -4 " to access the version four saves ago.
See comparison of file systems Metadata for details on which file systems support which kinds of metadata. In some cases, a file system may not make use of a storage device but can be used to organize and represent access to any data, whether it is stored or dynamically generated e.
File systems include utilities to initialize, alter parameters of and remove an instance of the file system. Some include the ability to extend or truncate the space allocated to the file system.
Directory utilities may be used to create, rename and delete directory entries , which are also known as dentries singular: Directory utilities may also include capabilities to create additional links to a directory hard links in Unix , to rename parent links "..
File utilities create, list, copy, move and delete files, and alter metadata. They may be able to truncate data, truncate or extend space allocation, append to, move, and modify files in-place.
Depending on the underlying structure of the file system, they may provide a mechanism to prepend to or truncate from, the beginning of a file, insert entries into the middle of a file or delete entries from a file.
Utilities to free space for deleted files, if the file system provides an undelete function, also belong to this category. Some file systems defer operations such as reorganization of free space, secure erasing of free space, and rebuilding of hierarchical structures by providing utilities to perform these functions at times of minimal activity.
An example is the file system defragmentation utilities. Some of the most important features of file system utilities involve supervisory activities which may involve bypassing ownership or direct access to the underlying device.
These include high-performance backup and recovery, data replication and reorganization of various data structures and allocation tables within the file system.
There are several mechanisms used by file systems to control access to data. Usually the intent is to prevent reading or modifying files by a user or group of users.
Another reason is to ensure data is modified in a controlled way so access may be restricted to a specific program.
Examples include passwords stored in the metadata of the file or elsewhere and file permissions in the form of permission bits, access control lists , or capabilities.
The need for file system utilities to be able to access the data at the media level to reorganize the structures and provide efficient backup usually means that these are only effective for polite users but are not effective against intruders.
Methods for encrypting file data are sometimes included in the file system. This is very effective since there is no need for file system utilities to know the encryption seed to effectively manage the data.
The risks of relying on encryption include the fact that an attacker can copy the data and use brute force to decrypt the data. Losing the seed means losing the data.
One significant responsibility of a file system is to ensure that, regardless of the actions by programs accessing the data, the structure remains consistent.
This includes actions taken if a program modifying data terminates abnormally or neglects to inform the file system that it has completed its activities.
This may include updating the metadata, the directory entry and handling any data that was buffered but not yet updated on the physical storage media.
Other failures which the file system must deal with include media failures or loss of connection to remote systems. In the event of an operating system failure or "soft" power failure, special routines in the file system must be invoked similar to when an individual program fails.
The file system must also be able to correct damaged structures. These may occur as a result of an operating system failure for which the OS was unable to notify the file system, power failure or reset.
The file system must also record events to allow analysis of systemic issues as well as problems with specific files or directories.
The most important purpose of a file system is to manage user data. This includes storing, retrieving and updating data. Some file systems accept data for storage as a stream of bytes which are collected and stored in a manner efficient for the media.
When a program retrieves the data, it specifies the size of a memory buffer and the file system transfers data from the media to the buffer.
A runtime library routine may sometimes allow the user program to define a record based on a library call specifying a length.
When the user program reads the data, the library retrieves data via the file system and returns a record. Some file systems allow the specification of a fixed record length which is used for all writes and reads.
This facilitates locating the n th record as well as updating records. An identification for each record, also known as a key, makes for a more sophisticated file system.
The user program can read, write and update records without regard to their location. This requires complicated management of blocks of media usually separating key blocks and data blocks.
Very efficient algorithms can be developed with pyramid structure for locating records. Utilities, language specific run-time libraries and user programs use file system APIs to make requests of the file system.
These include data transfer, positioning, updating metadata, managing directories, managing access specifications, and removal.
Frequently, retail systems are configured with a single file system occupying the entire storage device. Another approach is to partition the disk so that several file systems with different attributes can be used.
One file system, for use as browser cache, might be configured with a small allocation size. Convert Excel files to Google Sheets and vice versa.
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