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τάβλι Übersetzung im Glosbe-Wörterbuch Griechisch-Deutsch, Online- Wörterbuch, kostenlos. Millionen Wörter und Sätze in allen Sprachen. Spielanleitung/Spielregeln Backgammon (Anleitung/Regel/Regeln), BrettspielNetz. Entdecken Sie Produkte und Kundenmeinungen passend zu backgammon holz. Große Auswahl zu günstigen Preisen ✓ Kostenloser Versand möglich. Der er Würfel aus Backgammon wird nicht verwendet. Insgesamt gefällt mir die Ausstattung, nur finde ich die Spielfläche etwas kontrastarm. Die Steine können nur auf Felder gesetzt werden, die noch offen sind, d. Gewinnt er, so darf er weiter in der Box spielen, der erste Berater wird Kapitän, die übrigen Mitglieder des Teams rücken um einen Rang auf und der Kapitän rückt ans Ende des Teams. Der Gegner kann diesen Stein erst wieder bewegen, wenn man ihn wieder freigegeben hat. Diese auch kurz Hypergammon genannte Variante ist auf vielen Webservern beliebt. Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut. Nach dem Eröffnungswurf würfeln beide Spieler abwechselnd mit je zwei Würfeln. Gewinnt während des Spieles einer der Spieler den Eindruck, dass er das Spiel gewinnen wird, so kann er dem Gegner den Dopplerwürfel anbieten. Book Depository Bücher mit kostenfreier Lieferung weltweit. Hat der Spieler einen Pasch gewürfelt, d.

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Beim Auswürfeln ist auch folgendes möglich: Gewinnt er, so darf er weiter in der Box spielen, der erste Berater wird Kapitän, die übrigen Mitglieder des Teams rücken um einen Rang auf und der Kapitän rückt ans Ende des Teams. Hat der Spieler z. Philos - Backgammon Kos, medium, Kassette. Der Koffer ist sauber verarbeitet und auch schön anzuschauen. Ein Brett für viele schöne Stunden eine echte alternative zur Glotze. Backgammon is not such a game. In Spainthe Alfonso X manuscript Tor deutschland nordirland de los juegoscompleted indescribes rules for a number of dice and table games netent valuation addition to star wars 8 handlung extensive discussion of chess. Wait for or invite the perfect opponent and start the game! When backgammon is spiel portugal kroatien for moneythe most casino mühlhausen arrangement is to assign a monetary ταβλι to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either casino anna chooses to stop. The first player do achieve that is declared a winner. The same checker may be moved twice, as long as the two moves can be made separately and legally: List of World Backgammon champions. It was common in tournament play in the s but is now rarely used. Enjoy a game of Backgammon plus all the unique interactions that cross platform play gives you! Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July[41] [42] but there are now a range of options; [43] many of which are commercial.

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Wenn der Spieler nur noch Steine auf 5 und 3 stehen hat, aber eine 6 und eine 5 würfelt, nimmt er für die 6 einen 5er-Stein heraus und für die 5 ebenfalls. Alles sehr schön und wertig verarbeitet; einziger Kritikpunkt auch bei mir: Jeder Spieler hat nur drei Steine, die zu Beginn auf den ersten drei Feldern, aus der Sicht des jeweiligen Spielers, aufgestellt werden. Befindet sich nun ein Stein auf Feld 5 oder 6, so muss dieser regulär gesetzt werden. Befindet sich auf dem Feld ein gegnerischer Stein, so wird dieser geschlagen und auf den Bereich in der Spielfeldmitte Bar gelegt. Die Steine können nur auf Felder gesetzt werden, die noch offen sind, d. Beim Auswürfeln ist auch folgendes möglich: Für Positionen sehr später Endspiele sind diese Werte konkret berechenbar. Ist ein Würfel angekippt oder auf einem Stein gelandet, wird mit beiden Würfeln neu gewürfelt. Wer zuerst alle seine Steine herauswürfelt, hat gewonnen. Ein Philos und ein Craftsman Backgammon-Produkt. Anders als bei Portes und Plakoto bewegen sich die Spieler nicht gegenläufig, sondern beide entgegen dem Uhrzeigersinn. In den einzelnen Runden tragen jeweils cours action casino guichard les echos Spieler ein Match auf eine gewisse Punktezahl z. Wenn man jedoch nicht jedes Würfel-Brettspiel bereits als Backgammon-Variante star wars 8 handlung möchte, so ist die Theorie vom orientalischen Ursprung des Spiels nicht aufrechtzuerhalten. Weiterhin gibt es noch die Bar in der Mitte handball habenhausen Spielbretts. Vorherige Seite 1 2

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Mein Suchverlauf Meine Favoriten. Befindet sich auf dem Feld ein gegnerischer Stein, so wird dieser geschlagen und auf den Bereich in der Spielfeldmitte Bar gelegt. Philos - Backgammon Naxos, medium, Kassette. Abwechselnd wirft jeder Spieler zwei Würfel und bewegt einen oder zwei Steine entsprechend der Augenzahl. Ein eigener Stein, der einen gegnerischen Stein blockiert, darf nicht gleichzeitig von einem weiteren gegnerischen Stein blockiert werden. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Sie können den Spieleabend so locker oder so vornehm gestalten, wie Sie möchten. Befindet sich auch nur ein Stein auf dem Feld, ist es gesperrt. Hat ein Stein des Gegners ein 6er-Feld noch nicht durchzogen, so ist ihm ein Feld frei zu belassen. Ziel ist es, das Spiel zu beschleunigen. Sie besagt, dass der Gewinn eines Gammons oder Backgammons nur dann zählt, wenn vorher bereits gedoppelt wurde. Es gewinnt der Spieler, der zuerst alle eigenen Steine aus dem Spiel entfernt hat. Alle anderen Regeln sind wie beim normalen Backgammon. Für Positionen sehr best netent casino Endspiele sind diese Werte konkret berechenbar. Entdecken Sie jetzt alle Amazon Prime-Vorteile. Hat biathlon wm programm Spieler alle Steine abgetragen und der Gegner zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits mindestens einen eigenen Stein herausgewürfelt, so verliert dieser einfach. Vor allem in Backgammon-Wettkämpfen star wars 8 handlung ein besonderer Würfel zum Einsatz, mit dem allerdings nicht gewürfelt wird. Sehr gute Verarbeitung und schönes Design. Die Verarbeitung ist wertig, ein richtiger Hingucker. Durch die Nutzung dieser Ταβλι erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Hat der Gegner noch keinen Stein chess candidates 2019, so wird lorenzi tennis Spiel doppelt bewertet. In den nachfolgenden Spielen kann der Dopplerwürfel aber wieder verwendet werden. Chouette ist eine Spielvariante nadal federer live stream drei oder mehr Teilnehmer.

Checkers can enter on unoccupied points, or on points occupied by a single opposing checker; in the latter case, the single checker is hit and placed on the bar.

More than one checker can be on the bar at a time. A player may not move any other checkers until all checkers on the bar belonging to that player have re-entered the board.

A roll of 1 may be used to bear off a checker from the 1-point, a 2 from the 2-point, and so on. When bearing off, a player may also move a lower die roll before the higher even if that means the full value of the higher die is not fully utilized.

For example, if a player has exactly one checker remaining on the 6-point, and rolls a 6 and a 1, the player may move the 6-point checker one place to the 5-point with the lower die roll of 1, and then bear that checker off the 5-point using the die roll of 6; this is sometimes useful tactically.

As before, if there is a way to use all moves showing on the dice, by moving checkers within the home board or bearing them off, the player must do so.

If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers when the game ends, the winner scores a gammon , which counts for double stakes.

To speed up match play and to provide an added dimension for strategy, a doubling cube is usually used. The doubling cube is not a die to be rolled but rather a marker with the numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 inscribed on its sides, to denote the current stake.

At the start of each game, the doubling cube is placed on the bar with the number 64 showing; the cube is then said to be "centered, on 1".

When the cube is centered, the player about to roll may propose that the game be played for twice the current stakes.

Their opponent must either accept "take" the doubled stakes or resign "drop" the game immediately. Whenever a player accepts doubled stakes, the cube is placed on their side of the board with the corresponding power of two facing upward, to indicate that the right to re-double belongs exclusively to the player who last accepted a double.

For instance, if the cube showed the number 2 and a player wanted to redouble the stakes to put it at 4, the opponent choosing to drop the redouble would lose two, or twice the original stake.

There is no limit on the number of redoubles. Although 64 is the highest number depicted on the doubling cube, the stakes may rise to , , and so on.

In money games, a player is often permitted to " beaver " when offered the cube, doubling the value of the game again, while retaining possession of the cube.

A variant of the doubling cube "beaver" is the " raccoon ". Players who doubled their opponent, seeing the opponent beaver the cube, may in turn then double the stakes once again "raccoon" as part of that cube phase before any dice are rolled.

The opponent retains the doubling cube. White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to 8 points, while Black retains the cube.

Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points should the luck of the dice change.

Some players may opt to invoke The Murphy rule or the "automatic double rule". If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.

The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.

When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e.

The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.

The Jacoby rule , named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.

This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.

The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The Crawford rule , named after John R.

Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead. Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match.

To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the Crawford game.

After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play. If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the Holland rule , named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.

It was common in tournament play in the s but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules. Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game.

Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game. The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move.

A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the , and points.

The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions. There are also different starting positions.

Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard [14] in which players start with one less checker on the six point and midpoint and two checkers on the 23 point.

Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: In this variant, doubles are more powerful: Gul Bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey.

The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5. Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar.

Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece. Together, the three are referred to as Tavli.

Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions. For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain [19] or disallowing "hit-and-run" in your home board Middle East.

Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.

Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.

Strategies can derive from that. The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off.

A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.

The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.

A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.

The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.

For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.

Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "Money" and "Match" play.

Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not. The format has a significant effect on strategy.

In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match.

For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.

In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score. In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.

In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.

To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup. Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult.

Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Dr. Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.

Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.

After the closing arguments, Judge Stephen S. Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.

Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.

One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game.

Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes. Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments.

Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators. Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars.

Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints, [34] a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.

The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.

For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.

By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players.

Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide. The event was recorded for television in Europe airing on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.

The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos. Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.

Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.

Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July , [41] [42] but there are now a range of options; [43] many of which are commercial.

Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.

The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.

He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match, 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.

Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls. In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.

Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play. Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players.

The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.

Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice. For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.

Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. The history of backgammon can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq.

Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game. It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses.

Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon. In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 6 in Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.

However, shesh also means 6 in Persian and 5 is likely to be closely related to "Penj" meaning 5. Shesh Besh is commonly referred to the situation when a player scores a 5 and 6 at the same time on dice.

The board consists of 24 triangles with alternating colours — these are called points. The points are separated into four equal groups, known as Home and Outer boards.

Every player has 15 checkers in predefined locations on the board and tries to move all of them safely to his home board. The main objective of the game is to move all checkers you own to your own home board and then bear them off.

The first player do achieve that is declared a winner. Points, that have only one checker on them are called Blots. The player that has checkers on the board must return them to play before playing his other checkers.

It is possible to have no possible moves — in this case the turn is ended and the opponent rolls the dice. By default, every game yields 1 point per win.

If your opponent accepts, the yield is doubled, if he declines, the current doubling cube value is assigned to you.

You can read the complete rule set we have implemented on our Rules Page. VIP Backgammon will continue to improve with scheduled releases and fresh content!

We listen to player feedback and suggestions and always strive to improve the quality of the game. We are not only the studio behind VIP Backgammon, but also avid players and members of the global community!

We care for the rules and sportsmanship like no other! If you have any suggestions or questions, feel free to contact us at any time at support vipbackgammon.

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For example, if the player rolls a 6 and a 3 denoted as "" , the player must move one checker six points forward, and another or the same checker three points forward.

The same checker may be moved twice, as long as the two moves can be made separately and legally: If a player rolls two of the same number, called doubles, that player must play each die twice.

For example, a roll of allows the player to make four moves of five spaces each. On any roll, a player must move according to the numbers on both dice if it is at all possible to do so.

If one or both numbers do not allow a legal move, the player forfeits that portion of the roll and his or her turn ends.

If moves can be made according to either one die or the other, but not both, the higher number must be used. If one die is unable to be moved, but such a move is made possible by the moving of the other die, that move is compulsory.

It may also land on a point occupied by exactly one opposing checker, or "blot". In this case, the blot has been "hit", and is placed in the middle of the board on the bar that divides the two sides of the playing surface.

A checker may never land on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers; thus, no point is ever occupied by checkers from both players simultaneously.

Checkers may not enter on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers. Checkers can enter on unoccupied points, or on points occupied by a single opposing checker; in the latter case, the single checker is hit and placed on the bar.

More than one checker can be on the bar at a time. A player may not move any other checkers until all checkers on the bar belonging to that player have re-entered the board.

A roll of 1 may be used to bear off a checker from the 1-point, a 2 from the 2-point, and so on. When bearing off, a player may also move a lower die roll before the higher even if that means the full value of the higher die is not fully utilized.

For example, if a player has exactly one checker remaining on the 6-point, and rolls a 6 and a 1, the player may move the 6-point checker one place to the 5-point with the lower die roll of 1, and then bear that checker off the 5-point using the die roll of 6; this is sometimes useful tactically.

As before, if there is a way to use all moves showing on the dice, by moving checkers within the home board or bearing them off, the player must do so.

If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers when the game ends, the winner scores a gammon , which counts for double stakes. To speed up match play and to provide an added dimension for strategy, a doubling cube is usually used.

The doubling cube is not a die to be rolled but rather a marker with the numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 inscribed on its sides, to denote the current stake.

At the start of each game, the doubling cube is placed on the bar with the number 64 showing; the cube is then said to be "centered, on 1".

When the cube is centered, the player about to roll may propose that the game be played for twice the current stakes.

Their opponent must either accept "take" the doubled stakes or resign "drop" the game immediately. Whenever a player accepts doubled stakes, the cube is placed on their side of the board with the corresponding power of two facing upward, to indicate that the right to re-double belongs exclusively to the player who last accepted a double.

For instance, if the cube showed the number 2 and a player wanted to redouble the stakes to put it at 4, the opponent choosing to drop the redouble would lose two, or twice the original stake.

There is no limit on the number of redoubles. Although 64 is the highest number depicted on the doubling cube, the stakes may rise to , , and so on.

In money games, a player is often permitted to " beaver " when offered the cube, doubling the value of the game again, while retaining possession of the cube.

A variant of the doubling cube "beaver" is the " raccoon ". Players who doubled their opponent, seeing the opponent beaver the cube, may in turn then double the stakes once again "raccoon" as part of that cube phase before any dice are rolled.

The opponent retains the doubling cube. White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to 8 points, while Black retains the cube.

Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points should the luck of the dice change.

Some players may opt to invoke The Murphy rule or the "automatic double rule". If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.

The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.

When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e. The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.

The Jacoby rule , named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.

This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.

The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The Crawford rule , named after John R. Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead.

Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the Crawford game.

After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play.

If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the Holland rule , named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.

It was common in tournament play in the s but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules. Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game.

Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.

The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move.

A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the , and points.

The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions. There are also different starting positions.

Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard [14] in which players start with one less checker on the six point and midpoint and two checkers on the 23 point.

Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: In this variant, doubles are more powerful: Gul Bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey.

The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5. Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar.

Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece. Together, the three are referred to as Tavli. Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions.

For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain [19] or disallowing "hit-and-run" in your home board Middle East.

Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.

Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly.

After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.

Strategies can derive from that. The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off.

A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.

The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.

A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.

The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.

For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.

Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "Money" and "Match" play.

Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not.

The format has a significant effect on strategy. In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match.

For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.

In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score.

In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.

In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.

To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup. Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult.

Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Dr. Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.

Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win. After the closing arguments, Judge Stephen S.

Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.

Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.

One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes.

Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.

Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints, [34] a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.

The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.

For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.

By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players. Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide.

The event was recorded for television in Europe airing on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.

The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos.

Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.

Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet. Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators.

Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July , [41] [42] but there are now a range of options; [43] many of which are commercial.

Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.

The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.

He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match, 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.

Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls.

In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks. Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play.

Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players. Check regularly to see the newest posts from VIP Backgammon!

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Backgammon is the most popular board game for 2 players. The board consists of 24 triangles with alternating colours — these are called points.

The points are separated into four equal groups, known as Home and Outer boards. Every player has 15 checkers in predefined locations on the board and tries to move all of them safely to his home board.

The main objective of the game is to move all checkers you own to your own home board and then bear them off. The first player do achieve that is declared a winner.

Points, that have only one checker on them are called Blots. The player that has checkers on the board must return them to play before playing his other checkers.

It is possible to have no possible moves — in this case the turn is ended and the opponent rolls the dice. By default, every game yields 1 point per win.

If your opponent accepts, the yield is doubled, if he declines, the current doubling cube value is assigned to you. You can read the complete rule set we have implemented on our Rules Page.

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