There is a photograph of him prominently displayed in one of the hallways, often used in giving directions. In , Wiener returned to Europe as a Guggenheim scholar.

His sister, Constance, married Philip Franklin. Many tales, perhaps apocryphal, were told of him at MIT, especially concerning his absent-mindedness.

It was said that he returned home once to find his house empty. He inquired of a neighborhood girl the reason, and she said that the family had moved elsewhere that day.

During World War II , his work on the automatic aiming and firing of anti-aircraft guns caused Wiener to investigate information theory independently of Claude Shannon and to invent the Wiener filter.

To him is due the now standard practice of modeling an information source as a random process—in other words, as a variety of noise.

His anti-aircraft work eventually led him to formulate cybernetics. These men later made pioneering contributions to computer science and artificial intelligence.

Soon after the group was formed, Wiener suddenly ended all contact with its members, mystifying his colleagues.

This emotionally traumatized Pitts, and led to his career decline. Wiener later helped develop the theories of cybernetics, robotics , computer control, and automation.

He discussed the modeling of neurons with John von Neumann , and in a letter from November von Neumann presented his thoughts in advance of a meeting with Wiener.

Wiener always shared his theories and findings with other researchers, and credited the contributions of others. These included Soviet researchers and their findings.

He was a strong advocate of automation to improve the standard of living, and to end economic underdevelopment. His ideas became influential in India , whose government he advised during the s.

After the war, Wiener became increasingly concerned with what he believed was political interference with scientific research, and the militarization of science.

His article "A Scientist Rebels" from the January issue of The Atlantic Monthly [19] urged scientists to consider the ethical implications of their work.

After the war, he refused to accept any government funding or to work on military projects. Wiener was a participant of the Macy conferences.

He died in March , aged 69, in Stockholm , from a heart attack. Wiener was an early studier of stochastic and mathematical noise processes, contributing work relevant to electronic engineering , electronic communication , and control systems.

The example we give our students nowadays is that English text could be modeled as a random string of letters and spaces, where each letter of the alphabet and the space has an assigned probability.

Wiener originated cybernetics , a formalization of the notion of feedback , with many implications for engineering , systems control , computer science , biology , philosophy , and the organization of society.

A simple mathematical representation of Brownian motion , the Wiener equation , named after Wiener, assumes the current velocity of a fluid particle fluctuates randomly.

For signal processing, the Wiener filter is a filter proposed by Wiener during the s and published in as a classified document.

Its purpose is to reduce the amount of noise present in a signal by comparison with an estimate of the desired noiseless signal.

Wiener developed the filter at the Radiation Laboratory at MIT to predict the position of German bombers from radar reflections.

It is necessary to predict the future, because by the time the shell reaches the vicinity of the target, the target has moved, and may have changed direction slightly.

They even modeled the muscle response of the pilot, which led eventually to cybernetics. What emerged was a mathematical theory of great generalitya theory for predicting the future as best one can on the basis of incomplete information about the past.

It was a statistical theory that included applications that did not, strictly speaking, predict the future, but only tried to remove noise.

Wiener took a great interest in the mathematical theory of Brownian motion named after Robert Brown proving many results now widely known such as the non-differentiability of the paths.

Consequently, the one-dimensional version of Brownian motion was named the Wiener process. In its present formulation, the theorem of Wiener does not have any obvious association with Tauberian theorems, which deal with infinite series ; the translation from results formulated for integrals, or using the language of functional analysis and Banach algebras , is however a relatively routine process.

The Paley—Wiener theorem relates growth properties of entire functions on C n and Fourier transformation of Schwartz distributions of compact support.

The Wiener—Khinchin theorem , or Wiener — Khintchine theorem or Khinchin — Kolmogorov theorem , states that the power spectral density of a wide-sense-stationary random process is the Fourier transform of the corresponding autocorrelation function.

An abstract Wiener space is a mathematical object in measure theory , used to construct a "decent", strictly positive and locally finite measure on an infinite-dimensional vector space.

Leonard Gross provided the generalization to the case of a general separable Banach space. The notion of a Banach space itself was discovered independently by both Wiener and Stefan Banach at around the same time.

The NWC website highlights the research activities of the Center. Further, each year the Norbert Wiener Center hosts the February Fourier Talks, a two-day national conference displaying advances in pure and applied harmonic analysis in industry, government, and academia.

A child prodigy, Wiener later became an early researcher in stochastic and mathematical noise processes, contributing work relevant to electronic engineering, electronic communication, and control systems.

Wiener is considered the originator of cybernetics, a formalization of the notion of feedback, with implications for engineering, systems control, computer science, biology, neuroscience, philosophy, and the organization of society.

In applied mathematics, the Wiener—Khinchin theorem, also known as the Wiener—Khintchine theorem and sometimes as the Wiener—Khinchin—Einstein theorem or the Khinchin—Kolmogorov theorem, states that the autocorrelation function of a wide-sense-stationary random process has a spectral decomposition given by the power spectrum of that process.

Tosio Kato and Gerald B. Michael Aizenman and Jerrold E. Hermann Flaschka and Ciprian Foias Chorin and Arthur Winfree Craig Tracy and Harold Widom Original image, blurred image, image deblurred using Wiener deconvolution.

In mathematics, Wiener deconvolution is an application of the Wiener filter to the noise problems inherent in deconvolution. It works in the frequency domain, attempting to minimize the impact of deconvolved noise at frequencies which have a poor signal-to-noise ratio.

The Wiener deconvolution method has widespread use in image deconvolution applications, as the frequency spectrum of most visual images is fairly well behaved and may be estimated easily.

Wiener deconvolution is named after Norbert Wiener. Definition Given a system: In signal processing, the Wiener filter is a filter used to produce an estimate of a desired or target random process by linear time-invariant LTI filtering of an observed noisy process, assuming known stationary signal and noise spectra, and additive noise.

The Wiener filter minimizes the mean square error between the estimated random process and the desired process. Description The goal of the Wiener filter is to compute a statistical estimate of an unknown signal using a related signal as an input and filtering that known signal to produce the estimate as an output.

For example, the known signal might consist of an unknown signal of interest that has been corrupted by additive noise. The Wiener filter can be used to filter out the noise from the corrupted signal to provide an estimate of the underlying signal of interest.

The Wiener filter is based on a statistical approach, and a more statistical account of the theory is given in the minimum mean square error MMSE estimator article.

The Norbert Wiener Award for Social and Professional Responsibility was established in in honor of Norbert Wiener to recognize contributions by computer professionals to socially responsible use of computers.

Severo Ornstein and Laura Gould Institute for Global Communications Internet Engineering Task Force Nira Schwartz and Theodore Postol In mathematics, a Paley—Wiener theorem is any theorem that relates decay properties of a function or distribution at infinity with analyticity of its Fourier transform.

The theorem is named for Raymond Paley — and Norbert Wiener — The original theorems did not use the language of distributions, and instead applied to square-integrable functions.

The first such theorem using distributions was due to Laurent Schwartz. Holomorphic Fourier transforms The classical Paley—Wiener theorems make use of the holomorphic Fourier transform on classes of square-integrable functions supported on the real line.

One may then expect to differentiate under the integral in order to verify that the Cauchy—Riemann equations hold, and thus Food A Polish sausage kielbasa or "wenar" A Vienna sausage of German origin, named after the capital of Austria A hot dog, a cooked sausage, traditionally grilled or steamed and served in a sliced bun People Alexander S.

Norbert Wiener In mathematics, classical Wiener space is the collection of all continuous functions on a given domain usually a sub-interval of the real line , taking values in a metric space usually n-dimensional Euclidean space.

Classical Wiener space is useful in the study of stochastic processes whose sample paths are continuous functions. It is named after the American mathematician Norbert Wiener.

The classical Wiener space C E; M is the space of all continuous functions f: For brevity, write C for C [0, T]; Rn ; this is a vector space.

Write C for the linear subspace consisting only of those functions that take the value zero at the infimum of the set E. Many authors refer to C as "classical W In mathematics, there are a large number of topics named in honor of Norbert Wiener — It won the second annual U.

In the conclusion, he brings the burden of ethics to politics, A single realization of a one-dimensional Wiener process A single realization of a three-dimensional Wiener process In mathematics, the Wiener process is a continuous-time stochastic process named in honor of Norbert Wiener.

It is often called standard Brownian motion process or Brownian motion due to its historical connection with the physical process known as Brownian movement or Brownian motion originally observed by Robert Brown.

The Wiener process plays an important role in both pure and applied mathematics. In pure mathematics, the Wiener process gave rise to the study of continuous time martingales.

It is a key process in terms of which more complicated stochastic processes can be described. As such, it plays a vital role in stochastic calculus, diffusion processes a The Human Use of Human Beings is a book by Norbert Wiener, the founding thinker of cybernetics theory and an influential advocate of automation; it was first published in and revised in The text argues for the benefits of automation to society; it analyzes the meaning of productive communication and discusses ways for humans and machines to cooperate, with the potential to amplify human power and release people from the repetitive drudgery of manual labor, in favor of more creative pursuits in knowledge work and the arts.

The risk that such changes might harm society through dehumanization or subordination of our species is explored, and suggestions are offered on how to avoid such risk.

The word cybernetics refers to the theory of message transmission among people and machines. The thesis of the book is that: Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary[1] approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.

Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine.

Cybernetics is applicable when a system being analyzed incorporates a closed signaling loop—originally referred to as a "circular causal" relationship—that is, where action by the system generates some change in its environment and that change is reflected in the system in some manner feedback that triggers a system change.

Cybernetics is relevant to, for example, mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive, and social systems. The essential goal of the broad field of cybernetics is to understand and define the funct A simple mathematical representation of Brownian motion, the Wiener equation, named after Norbert Wiener, assumes the current velocity of a fluid particle fluctuates randomly: Since velocity changes instantly in this formalism, the Wiener equation is not suitable for short time scales.

In those cases, the Langevin equation, which looks at particle acceleration, must be used. An abstract Wiener space is a mathematical object in measure theory, used to construct a "decent" strictly positive and locally finite measure on an infinite-dimensional vector space.

The structure theorem for Gaussian measures states that all Gaussian measures can be represented by the abstract Wiener space construction. Definition Let H be a separable Hilbert space.

Let E be a separable Banach space. In mathematics, the Wiener series or Wiener G-functional expansion originates from the book of Norbert Wiener.

It is an orthogonal expansion for nonlinear functionals closely related to the Volterra series and having the same relation to it as an orthogonal Hermite polynomial expansion has to a power series.

For this reason it is also known as the Wiener-Hermite expansion. The analogue of the coefficients are referred to as Wiener kernels.

The terms of the series are orthogonal uncorrelated with respect to a statistical input of white noise. This property allows the terms to be identified in applications by the Lee-Schetzen method.

The Wiener series is important in nonlinear system identification. In this context, the series approximates the functional relation of the output to the entire history of system input at any time.

The Wiener series has been applied mostly to the identification of biological systems, especially in neuroscience. The name Wiener series is almost exclusively used in system t A long, thin Wiener sausage in 3 dimensions A short, fat Wiener sausage in 2 dimensions In the mathematical field of probability, the Wiener sausage is a neighborhood of the trace of a Brownian motion up to a time t, given by taking all points within a fixed distance of Brownian motion.

It can be visualized as a sausage of fixed radius whose centerline is Brownian motion. The Wiener sausage was named after Norbert Wiener by M.

The Wiener sausage is one of the simplest non-Markovian functionals of Brownian motion. Its applications include stochastic phenomena including heat conduction.

In mathematics, the Wiener algebra, named after Norbert Wiener and usually denoted by A T , is the space of absolutely convergent Fourier series.

The Wiener algebra A T is closed under pointwise multiplication of functions. In mathematics, deconvolution is an algorithm-based process used to reverse the effects of convolution on recorded data.

Because these techniques are in turn widely used in many scientific and engineering disciplines, deconvolution finds many applications.

In general, the objective of deconvolution is to find the solution of a convolution equation of the form: The function g might represent the transfer function of an instrument or a driving force that was applied to a physical system.

If we know g, or at least know the form of g, then we can perform deterministic deconvolution. However, if we do not know g in advance, then we need to estimate it.

This is most often done using methods of statistical estimation William James Sidis ; April 1, — July 17, was an American child prodigy with exceptional mathematical and linguistic skills.

He is notable for his book The Animate and the Inanimate, in which he postulates the existence of dark matter, entropy and the origin of life in the context of thermodynamics.

Sidis was raised in a particular manner by his father, psychologist Boris Sidis, who wished his son to be gifted. Sidis first became famous for his precocity and later for his eccentricity and withdrawal from public life.

Eventually, he avoided mathematics altogether, writing on other subjects under a number of pseudonyms. He entered Harvard at age 11 and, as an adult, was claimed to have an extremely high IQ, and to be conversant in about 25 languages and dialects.

Some of these claims have not been verifiable, but peers such as Norbert Wiener supported the assertion that his intelligence was very high.

Psycho-Cybernetics is a self-help book written by Maxwell Maltz in Many of the psychological methods of training elite athletes are based on the concepts in Psycho-Cybernetics as well.

The book defines the mind-body connection as the core in succeeding in attaining personal goals. He learned that the power of self-affirmation and mental visualization te Biocybernetics is the application of cybernetics to biological science, composed of biological disciplines that benefit from the application of cybernetics including neurology and multicellular systems.

Biocybernetics plays a major role in systems biology, seeking to integrate different levels of information to understand how biological systems function.

Biocybernetics is an abstract science and is a fundamental part of theoretical biology, based upon the principles of systemics.

Terminology Biocybernetics is a conjoined word from bio Greek: Although the extended form of the word is biological cybernetics, the field is most commonly referred to as biocybernetics in scientific papers.

Bioinformatics may also be properly referred to as bio informatics. Popular papers published by each scientist are listed below.

Craig Tracy Craig Arnold Tracy born September 9, is an American mathematician, known for his contributions to mathematical physics and probability theory.

Born in United Kingdom, he moved as infant to Missouri where he grew up and obtained a B. He then was on the faculty of Dartmouth College —84 before joining University of California, Davis where he is now a distinguished, but difficult[2], professor.

The butterfly effect or sensitive dependence on initial conditions is the property of a dynamical system that, starting from any of various arbitrarily close alternative initial conditions on the attractor, the iterated points will become arbitrarily spread out from each other.

Experimental demonstration of the butterfly effect with different recordings of the same double pendulum. In each recording, the pendulum starts with almost the same initial condition.

Over time the differences in the dynamics grow from almost unnoticeable to drastic ones. In chaos theory, the butterfly effect is the sensitive dependence on initial conditions in which a small change in one state of a deterministic nonlinear system can result in large differences in a later state.

Functional integration is a collection of results in mathematics and physics where the domain of an integral is no longer a region of space, but a space of functions.

Functional integrals arise in probability, in the study of partial differential equations, and in the path integral approach to the quantum mechanics of particles and fields.

In an ordinary integral there is a function to be integrated the integrand and a region of space over which to integrate the function the domain of integration.

The process of integration consists of adding up the values of the integrand for each point of the domain of integration.

Making this procedure rigorous requires a limiting procedure, where the domain of integration is divided into smaller and smaller regions.

For each small region, the value of the integrand cannot vary much, so it may be replaced by a single value. In a functional integral the domain of integration is a space of functions.

For each function, the integrand returns a value to add up. Stochastic calculus is a branch of mathematics that operates on stochastic processes.

It allows a consistent theory of integration to be defined for integrals of stochastic processes with respect to stochastic processes.

It is used to model systems that behave randomly. The best-known stochastic process to which stochastic calculus is applied is the Wiener process named in honor of Norbert Wiener , which is used for modeling Brownian motion as described by Louis Bachelier in and by Albert Einstein in and other physical diffusion processes in space of particles subject to random forces.

Since the s, the Wiener process has been widely applied in financial mathematics and economics to model the evolution in time of stock prices and bond interest rates.

A simple negative feedback system descriptive, for example, of some electronic amplifiers. The feedback is negative if the loop gain AB is negative.

Negative feedback or balancing feedback occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.

Whereas positive feedback tends to lead to instability via exponential growth, oscillation or chaotic behavior, negative feedback generally promotes stability.

Negative feedback tends to promote a settling to equilibrium, and reduces the effects of perturbations. Negative feedback loops in which just the right amount of correction is applied with optimum timing can be very stable, accurate, and responsive.

Negative feedback is widely used in mechanical and electronic engineering, and also within living organisms,[1][2] and can be seen in many other fields from chemistry and economics to physical systems su CPSR was incorporated in following discussions and organizing that began in CPSR was a non-profit When CPSR was established, it was concerned solely about the use of computers in warfare.

The Shannon—Weaver model as portrayed in a report from the United States Office of Technology Assessment[1] The Shannon—Weaver model of communication has been called the "mother of all models.

However, some consider the name to be misleading, asserting that the most significant ideas were developed by Shannon alone. Shannon developed information entropy as a measure for the uncertainty in a The Calculus ratiocinator is a theoretical universal logical calculation framework, a concept described in the writings of Gottfried Leibniz, usually paired with his more frequently mentioned characteristica universalis, a universal conceptual language.

Two views There are two contrasting points of view on what Leibniz meant by calculus ratiocinator. The first is associated with computer software, the second is associated with computer hardware.

The analytic view The received point of view in analytic philosophy and formal logic, is that the calculus ratiocinator anticipates mathematical logic—an "algebra of logic".

Frege intended his "concept script" to be a calculus ratiocinator as well as a lingua characteristica. Polynomial chaos PC , also called Wiener chaos expansion, is a non-sampling-based method to determine evolution of uncertainty in a dynamical system, when there is probabilistic uncertainty in the system parameters.

PC was first introduced by Norbert Wiener where Hermite polynomials were used to model stochastic processes with Gaussian random variables.

This applies to most physical systems. The center, named after acclaimed scientist Norbert Wiener was founded in and is based out of the Mathematics Building on the University of Maryland, College Park campus.

It is supported by the University of Maryland, the National Science Foundation, and local industries with which it interacts. Currently, the Norbert Wiener Center is actively involved in research project involved with waveform design, dimension reduction, geospatial terrain and image processing, data fusion, phase retrieval frames, and analysis on graphs.

The first FFT was held in and , and then annually since The aim of the annual FFT is t Louis Pierre Couffignal 16 March — 4 July was a French mathematician and cybernetics pioneer, born in Monflanquin.

He taught in schools in the southwest of Brittany, then at the naval academy and, eventually, at the Buffon School. He published a variety of notes at the Academy of Sciences, with a focus on using binary computation by machines to solve new problems.

Following Leibniz, he promoted binary numbers as the basis of calculating machines. Couffignal received his Doctorate of Sciences in with his thesis on Mechanical Analysis, demonstrating applications for machines to calculate celestial mechanics.

Couffignal took on an interest in Cybernetics, influenced by his meetings with Louis Lapicque in and the cyberneticist Norbert Wiener in With Lapicque, Couffignal compared t Arturo Rosenblueth Stearns October 2, — September 20, was a Mexican researcher, physician and physiologist, who is known as one of the pioneers of cybernetics.

Biography Rosenblueth was born in in Ciudad Guerrero, Chihuahua. He began his studies in Mexico City, then traveled to Berlin and Paris where he obtained his medical degree.

Returning to Mexico city in , he engaged in teaching and research in physiology. In he obtained a Guggenheim Scholarship and moved to Harvard University, to the department of Physiology, then directed by Walter Cannon.

With Cannon he explored the chemical mediation of homeostasis. Rosenblueth cowrote research papers with both Cannon and Norbert Wiener, pioneer of cybernetics.

Rosenblueth was an influential member of the core group at the Macy Conferences. Norbert is a Germanic given name, from nord "north" and berht "bright".

Norbert is also occasionally found as a surname. A cyberneticist or a cybernetician is a person who practices cybernetics. Heinz von Foerster once told Stuart Umpleby that Norbert Wiener preferred the term "cybernetician" rather than "cyberneticist", perhaps because Wiener was a mathematician rather than a physicist.

The word cyberneticist was used by Nicolas Rashevsky who began as a theoretical physicist, Robert Rosen, who began his career as a mathematician, regarded Neuro cybernetics—and more generally Biocybernetics—as fields closely allied to Mathematical Biology and Mathematical Biophysics in which control theory and dynamical system theories also play significant roles.

Today "cybernetician" is preferred by members of the American Society for Cybernetics. See also Cybernetics New Cybernetics Mathematical and theoretical biology Neurocybernetics Biocybernetics Systems science Systems biology Systems engineering External links Look up cyberneticist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Ihr erster Halt auf der Alm glich jedoch einer kleinen Achterbahnfahrt, zweimal stiegen Sie dabei in die 1. Ein Jahr zuvor sind wir aus der 1.

Bundesliga abgestiegen und haben es somit geschafft, direkt wieder aufzusteigen. Von 38 Partien haben wir 30 gewonnen. FC Kaiserslautern gewechselt bin.

Solche Emotionen kamen dann immer an zweiter Stelle. Er ist im Vergleich zu mir ein ganz anderer Spielertyp und macht seinen Job in Bielefeld wirklich sehr gut.

Werden Sie dennoch ein ruhiges Weihnachtsfest haben? Er ist ein sehr wertvoller Spieler und ich hoffe, dass er so erfolgreich bleibt und weiterhin treffen wird.

Dadurch hat er der Mannschaft schon oft geholfen, sei es im Kampf um den Klassenerhalt.

Selbst ein Vertrag, der noch vier Jahre läuft, hat seinen Stellenwert verloren. Eilenfeldt blieb bei der Arminia und arbeitete als Trainer im Jugendbereich. Das ist leider eine Tatsache geworden, ändern wird sich das wohl nicht mehr. Das Potenzial ist vorhanden, aktuell ist man vorne mit dabei. Die Aufstiege mit Arminia waren sehr positiv und schön, da hat immer alles gepasst und wir konnten am Ende der Saison feiern. Nach welchem Aufstieg war der Kater am nächsten Tag denn stärker? FC Mülheim , mit dem er in der Nordgruppe der neu gegründeten 2. Wenn man ehrlich ist, dann geht oftmals natürlich nur um das Geld. Solche Dinge bleiben aber natürlich hängen. Doch vielleicht helfen seine Tore der Arminia auch einmal, über den Aufstieg in die 1. Das muss nämlich das Ziel von Bielefeld sein. Ihr erster Halt auf der Alm glich jedoch einer kleinen Achterbahnfahrt, zweimal stiegen Sie dabei in die 1. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. This property allows the terms to be identified in**norbert eilenfeldt**by the Lee-Schetzen method. Germanic given names Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Or the Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, a book by Norbert Wiener Cybernetics and Human Knowing, a kann das casino den rtp ändern peer-reviewed academic journal Cybernetics hello casino 50 Systems, formerly Journal of Cybernetics, a peer-reviewed scientific journal Cybernetics Society, UK society for the promotion of cybernetics See also Second-order cybernetics, the cybernetics of cybernetics Cyberneticist Neurocybernetics Sociocybernetics Computer security Cyberwarfare Cybersex All pages beginning with Cybernetic All pages with a title containing 19 bundesliga spieltag All pages with a title containing cybernetics Cyber disambiguation Norbert Punkte in der formel 1 Award for Social and Professional Responsibility topic The Norbert Wiener Award for Social and Professional Responsibility was established in in honor of Norbert Wiener flirt affaire recognize contributions by computer professionals to socially responsible spielergebnisse 1. bundesliga of computers. Member feedback verifiziere Wiener: In this context, the series approximates the functional relation of the output to the entire history of system input at any time. Proceedings of the Norbert Wiener Centenary Congress In mathematics, there are a large number of topics named in honor of Norbert Wiener — Member feedback about Smoothing problem stochastic processes: Fett then easy online casino games the Colorado School of Art on a scholarship program. Member feedback about Wiener filter: Structural system Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

### Norbert Eilenfeldt Video

Craiova Kaiserslautern -calificarea in 1/2finals UEFA 82/83After graduating from high school in , he joined the Air Force but was later discharged due t Ludwig van Beethoven listen ; German: A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in classical music, he remains one of the most recognised and influential of all composers.

His best-known compositions include 9 symphonies; 5 piano concertos; 1 violin concerto; 32 piano sonatas; 16 string quartets; a mass, the Missa solemnis; and an opera, Fidelio.

His career as a composer is conventionally divided into early, middle, and late periods; the "early" period is typically seen to last until , the "middle" period from to , and the "late" period from to his death in He displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven and composer and conductor Christian Gottlob Neefe.

At the age of 21 he moved to Vienna, where he b Italia listen , officially the Italian Republic Italian: Repubblica Italiana ,[9][10][11][12] is a country in Europe.

With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe.

Due to its central geographic location in Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has historically been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures.

In addition to the various ancient Italian tribes and Italic peoples dispersed throughout the Italian Peninsula and insular Italy, beginning from the classical era, Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Greeks established settlements in the south of Italy, with Etruscans and Celts inhabiting the centre and the north o Norbert Putnam is an American record producer and musician.

The Romani also spelled Romany , , colloquially known as Gypsies or Roma, are an Indo-Aryan, traditionally itinerant ethnic group living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent,[59][60][61] from the Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab regions of modern-day India.

Polska listen , officially the Republic of Poland Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska[c] listen , is a country located in Central Europe.

The establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD , when Mieszko I,[14] ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity.

The Kingdom of Poland was founded in , and in it c The Nuremberg trials German: The trials were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany, who planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in the Holocaust and other war crimes.

The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg, Germany, and their decisions marked a turning point between classical and contemporary international law.

The first and best known of these trials was that of the major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal IMT. It was described as "the greatest trial in history" by Sir Norman Birkett, one of the British judges who presided over them.

Antisemitism also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism.

Although the term did not come into common usage until the 19th century, it is now also applied to historic anti-Jewish incidents. Notable instances of persecution include the Rhineland massacres preceding the First Crusade in , the Edict of Expulsion from England in , the massacres of Spanish Jews in , the persecutions of the Spanish Inquisition, the expulsion from Spain He served in the U.

Army during World War II. Tiemann graduated in with a B. After returning to the U. He successfully pushed for a number of progressive changes, including the adoption of a new tax structure and of The Norbert Wiener Award for Social and Professional Responsibility was established in in honor of Norbert Wiener to recognize contributions by computer professionals to socially responsible use of computers.

Severo Ornstein and Laura Gould Institute for Global Communications Internet Engineering Task Force Nira Schwartz and Theodore Postol He graduated from Collinwood High School in , then studied at the Cleveland School of Art, completing his classes in He regretted not having a chance to sail on the Pacific Ocean, but was able to sketch a variety of characters he met on the North African coast.

In , he married his high-school sweetheart. Fett then attended the Colorado School of Art on a scholarship program.

On their way to New York to pursue job opportunities, the Fetts stopped in Cleveland to visit family and decided to stay. Fett began an engineering career that lasted for decades.

In , Fett began pursuing his lifelong dream of drawing a comic strip, and had su Rubeus Hagrid is a fictional character in the Harry Potter book series written by J.

He is introduced in Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone as a half-giant and half-human who is the gamekeeper and Keeper of Keys and Grounds of Hogwarts, the primary setting for the first six novels.

Character development Hagrid was among the characters that Rowling says she created on "the very first day". Norga , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northwestern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula; the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard are also part of the Kingdom of Norway.

Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, and the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side.

King Harald V of the Dano He fought in the November Uprising during which he was wounded twice. On February 27, for his heroic attitude Patek was promoted the second lieutenant of the "1 August" brigade, and on October 3 of the same year decorated with Virtuti Militari Golden Cross.

After the downfall of the uprising — like many other officers and soldiers of Polish Army — he had to emigrate.

Cyprus listen ; Greek: The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia, and Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world.

As a strategic location in the Middle East, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians, Egyptians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in BC by Alexander the Great.

A serial killer is typically a person who murders three or more people, in two or more separate events over a period of time, for primarily psychological reasons.

In many cases, the exact number of victims assigned to a serial killer is not known, and even if that person is convicted of a few, there can be the possibility that they killed many more.

To address this, multiple categories have been provided in order to more accurately describe the nature of certain serial murders. The company was founded in and has its headquarters in Munich, Bavaria.

Motorcycles are marketed under the brand BMW Motorrad. The company has significant motorsport history, especially in touring cars, Formula 1, sports cars and the Isle of Man TT.

The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states countries , nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition.

Norbert topic Norbert is a Germanic given name, from nord "north" and berht "bright". Member feedback about Norbert: Germanic given names Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

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Member feedback about Norbert Kox: Norbert dog topic Norbert is a fluffy, 7" tall mixed breed registered therapy dog, best known for his Norbert picture book series, and his popularity on social media.

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Mars topic Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury. Norbert Elias topic Norbert Elias German: Member feedback about Norbert Elias: Knight Commanders of the Order of Merit of the Member feedback about Muhammad Ali: Counterculture of the s Revolvy Brain revolvybrain The most influential people of the 20th Century?

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Britney Spears topic Britney Jean Spears born December 2, [1] is an American singer, songwriter, dancer, and actress.

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Member feedback about Norbert Putnam: American session musicians Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Romani people topic The Romani also spelled Romany , , colloquially known as Gypsies or Roma, are an Indo-Aryan, traditionally itinerant ethnic group living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent,[59][60][61] from the Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab regions of modern-day India.

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Member feedback about Antisemitism: Negative feedback or balancing feedback occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.

Whereas positive feedback tends to lead to instability via exponential growth, oscillation or chaotic behavior, negative feedback generally promotes stability.

Negative feedback tends to promote a settling to equilibrium, and reduces the effects of perturbations. Negative feedback loops in which just the right amount of correction is applied with optimum timing can be very stable, accurate, and responsive.

Negative feedback is widely used in mechanical and electronic engineering, and also within living organisms,[1][2] and can be seen in many other fields from chemistry and economics to physical systems su CPSR was incorporated in following discussions and organizing that began in CPSR was a non-profit When CPSR was established, it was concerned solely about the use of computers in warfare.

The Shannon—Weaver model as portrayed in a report from the United States Office of Technology Assessment[1] The Shannon—Weaver model of communication has been called the "mother of all models.

However, some consider the name to be misleading, asserting that the most significant ideas were developed by Shannon alone.

Shannon developed information entropy as a measure for the uncertainty in a The Calculus ratiocinator is a theoretical universal logical calculation framework, a concept described in the writings of Gottfried Leibniz, usually paired with his more frequently mentioned characteristica universalis, a universal conceptual language.

Two views There are two contrasting points of view on what Leibniz meant by calculus ratiocinator. The first is associated with computer software, the second is associated with computer hardware.

The analytic view The received point of view in analytic philosophy and formal logic, is that the calculus ratiocinator anticipates mathematical logic—an "algebra of logic".

Frege intended his "concept script" to be a calculus ratiocinator as well as a lingua characteristica. Polynomial chaos PC , also called Wiener chaos expansion, is a non-sampling-based method to determine evolution of uncertainty in a dynamical system, when there is probabilistic uncertainty in the system parameters.

PC was first introduced by Norbert Wiener where Hermite polynomials were used to model stochastic processes with Gaussian random variables.

This applies to most physical systems. The center, named after acclaimed scientist Norbert Wiener was founded in and is based out of the Mathematics Building on the University of Maryland, College Park campus.

It is supported by the University of Maryland, the National Science Foundation, and local industries with which it interacts.

Currently, the Norbert Wiener Center is actively involved in research project involved with waveform design, dimension reduction, geospatial terrain and image processing, data fusion, phase retrieval frames, and analysis on graphs.

The first FFT was held in and , and then annually since The aim of the annual FFT is t Louis Pierre Couffignal 16 March — 4 July was a French mathematician and cybernetics pioneer, born in Monflanquin.

He taught in schools in the southwest of Brittany, then at the naval academy and, eventually, at the Buffon School. He published a variety of notes at the Academy of Sciences, with a focus on using binary computation by machines to solve new problems.

Following Leibniz, he promoted binary numbers as the basis of calculating machines. Couffignal received his Doctorate of Sciences in with his thesis on Mechanical Analysis, demonstrating applications for machines to calculate celestial mechanics.

Couffignal took on an interest in Cybernetics, influenced by his meetings with Louis Lapicque in and the cyberneticist Norbert Wiener in With Lapicque, Couffignal compared t Arturo Rosenblueth Stearns October 2, — September 20, was a Mexican researcher, physician and physiologist, who is known as one of the pioneers of cybernetics.

Biography Rosenblueth was born in in Ciudad Guerrero, Chihuahua. He began his studies in Mexico City, then traveled to Berlin and Paris where he obtained his medical degree.

Returning to Mexico city in , he engaged in teaching and research in physiology. In he obtained a Guggenheim Scholarship and moved to Harvard University, to the department of Physiology, then directed by Walter Cannon.

With Cannon he explored the chemical mediation of homeostasis. Rosenblueth cowrote research papers with both Cannon and Norbert Wiener, pioneer of cybernetics.

Rosenblueth was an influential member of the core group at the Macy Conferences. Norbert is a Germanic given name, from nord "north" and berht "bright".

Norbert is also occasionally found as a surname. A cyberneticist or a cybernetician is a person who practices cybernetics.

Heinz von Foerster once told Stuart Umpleby that Norbert Wiener preferred the term "cybernetician" rather than "cyberneticist", perhaps because Wiener was a mathematician rather than a physicist.

The word cyberneticist was used by Nicolas Rashevsky who began as a theoretical physicist, Robert Rosen, who began his career as a mathematician, regarded Neuro cybernetics—and more generally Biocybernetics—as fields closely allied to Mathematical Biology and Mathematical Biophysics in which control theory and dynamical system theories also play significant roles.

Today "cybernetician" is preferred by members of the American Society for Cybernetics. See also Cybernetics New Cybernetics Mathematical and theoretical biology Neurocybernetics Biocybernetics Systems science Systems biology Systems engineering External links Look up cyberneticist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Noted contributors to cybernetics and systems theo In mathematics, the Paley—Wiener integral is a simple stochastic integral. The integral is named after its discoverers, Raymond Paley and Norbert Wiener.

We have abused notation slightly: It can be shown that j is an injective function and has dense image in H. A computer-simulated realization of a Wiener or Brownian motion process on the surface of a sphere.

The Wiener process is widely considered the most studied and central stochastic process in probability theory. Historically, the random variables were associated with or indexed by a set of numbers, usually viewed as points in time, giving the interpretation of a stochastic process representing numerical values of some system randomly changing over time, such as the growth of a bacterial population, an electrical current fluctuating due to thermal noise, or the movement of a gas molecule.

They have applications in many disciplines including sciences such as biology,[7] chemistry,[8] ecology,[9] neuroscience,[10] and p The Ratio Club was a small informal dining club of young psychiatrists, psychologists, physiologists, mathematicians and engineers who met to discuss issues in cybernetics.

The idea of the club arose from a symposium on animal behaviour held in July by the Society of Experimental Biology in Cambridge.

The club was founded by the neurologist John Bates, with other notable members such as W. The name Ratio was suggested by Albert Uttley, it being the Latin root meaning "computation or the faculty of mind which calculates, plans and reasons".

He pointed out that it is also the root of rationarium, meaning a statistical account, and ratiocinatius, meaning argumentative.

Wiener used the term in reference to calculus ratioci Ross Ashby 6 September in London — 15 November was an English psychiatrist and a pioneer in cybernetics, the study of the science of communications and automatic control systems in both machines and living things.

His first name was not used: They introduced exact and logical thinking into the brand new discipline of cybernetics and were highly influential.

Biography William Ross Ashby was born in in London, where his father was working at an advertising agency. From to he worked at the St.

Later on he also received a Diploma in Psychological Medicine in , and an M. Ross Ashby started working The Wiener—Hopf method is a mathematical technique widely used in applied mathematics.

It was initially developed by Norbert Wiener and Eberhard Hopf as a method to solve systems of integral equations, but has found wider use in solving two-dimensional partial differential equations with mixed boundary conditions on the same boundary.

In general, the method works by exploiting the complex-analytical properties of transformed functions. Typically, the standard Fourier transform is used, but examples exist using other transforms, such as the Mellin transform.

These two functions will also coincide on some region of the complex plane, typically, a thin strip containing the real li Look up cybernetics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems, their structures, constraints, and possibilities, but has other definitions.

Cybernetics may also refer to: Or the Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, a book by Norbert Wiener Cybernetics and Human Knowing, a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal Cybernetics and Systems, formerly Journal of Cybernetics, a peer-reviewed scientific journal Cybernetics Society, UK society for the promotion of cybernetics See also Second-order cybernetics, the cybernetics of cybernetics Cyberneticist Neurocybernetics Sociocybernetics Computer security Cyberwarfare Cybersex All pages beginning with Cybernetic All pages with a title containing cybernetic All pages with a title containing cybernetics Cyber disambiguation The Smoothing problem not to be confused with smoothing in statistics, image processing and other contexts refers to Recursive Bayesian estimation also known as Bayes filter is the problem of estimating an unknown probability density function recursively over time using incremental incoming measurements.

It is one of the main problems defined by Norbert Wiener [1]. Please refer to the article Recursive Bayesian estimation for more information.

The Smoothing problem and Filtering problem are often considered a closely related pair of problems. They are studied in Bayesian smoothing theory.

Not to be confused with blurring and smoothing using methods such as moving average. Example smoothers Some variants include: Information technology IT is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data,[1] or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology IT.

Operational calculus, also known as operational analysis, is a technique by which problems in analysis, in particular differential equations, are transformed into algebraic problems, usually the problem of solving a polynomial equation.

History The idea of representing the processes of calculus, differentiation and integration, as operators has a long history that goes back to Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

Treatises describing the application of operator methods to ordinary and partial differential equations were written by Robert Bell Carmichael in [3] Bass Professor in the Humanities and Sciences.

Academic biography Donoho did his undergraduate studies at Princeton University, graduating in He has been the Ph.

The Wiener filter as originally proposed by Norbert Wiener is a signal processing filter which uses knowledge of the statistical properties of both the signal and the noise to reconstruct an optimal estimate of the signal from a noisy one-dimensional time-ordered data stream.

The generalized Wiener filter generalizes the same idea beyond the domain of one-dimensional time-ordered signal processing, with two-dimensional image processing being the most common application.

DNA digital data storage is defined as the process of encoding and decoding binary data to and from synthesized DNA strands.

DNA molecules are genetic blueprints for living cells and organisms. Although DNA data storage became a popular topic in the 21st century, it is not a modern-day idea.

Its origins date back to when Mikhail Neiman, a Soviet physicist, published his works in the journal Radiotehnika. Neiman wrote about general considerations regarding the possibility of recording, storage, and retrieval of information on DNA molecules.

The physicist explained he had the idea from an interview with Norbert Wiener, an American cybernetic, mathematician, and philosopher, published in History Among early examples of DNA data storage, in a device was created at the University of Arizona using addressing molecules to encode mismatch sites within a DNA strand.

These mismatches were then able to be read out by performing a restriction digest, thereby recovering the data. Norbert Wiener was regarded as a semi-legendary figure at MIT.

Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. In the mathematical field of probability, the " Wiener sausage " is a neighborhood of the trace of a Brownian motion up to a time t, given by taking all points within a fixed distance of Brownian motion.

It can be visualized as a cylinder of fixed radius the centerline of which is Brownian motion. Research, AI 11 January Retrieved 11 January Retrieved March 25, Leone Montagnini, Harmonies of Disorder: Heims "National Book Awards — ".

University of Maryland, College Park. Proceedings of Symposia in Applied Mathematics Vol Proceedings of the Norbert Wiener Centenary Congress John Von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From interdisciplinary interaction to societal functions".

Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. Originally published as a classified document in "Note on a paper of M. Topics in Banach Space Theory.

Graduate Texts in Mathematics. The Three Body Problem. Member feedback about Norbert Wiener: National Book Award winners Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Wiener—Khinchin theorem topic In applied mathematics, the Wiener—Khinchin theorem, also known as the Wiener—Khintchine theorem and sometimes as the Wiener—Khinchin—Einstein theorem or the Khinchin—Kolmogorov theorem, states that the autocorrelation function of a wide-sense-stationary random process has a spectral decomposition given by the power spectrum of that process.

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Awards started in Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Wiener deconvolution topic From left: Member feedback about Wiener deconvolution: Signal processing Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Wiener filter topic In signal processing, the Wiener filter is a filter used to produce an estimate of a desired or target random process by linear time-invariant LTI filtering of an observed noisy process, assuming known stationary signal and noise spectra, and additive noise.

Member feedback about Wiener filter: Stochastic processes Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Norbert Wiener Award for Social and Professional Responsibility topic The Norbert Wiener Award for Social and Professional Responsibility was established in in honor of Norbert Wiener to recognize contributions by computer professionals to socially responsible use of computers.

Computer-related awards Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Paley—Wiener theorem topic In mathematics, a Paley—Wiener theorem is any theorem that relates decay properties of a function or distribution at infinity with analyticity of its Fourier transform.

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Classical Wiener space topic Norbert Wiener In mathematics, classical Wiener space is the collection of all continuous functions on a given domain usually a sub-interval of the real line , taking values in a metric space usually n-dimensional Euclidean space.

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Wiener process topic A single realization of a one-dimensional Wiener process A single realization of a three-dimensional Wiener process In mathematics, the Wiener process is a continuous-time stochastic process named in honor of Norbert Wiener.

Member feedback about Wiener process: Variants of random walks Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. The Human Use of Human Beings topic The Human Use of Human Beings is a book by Norbert Wiener, the founding thinker of cybernetics theory and an influential advocate of automation; it was first published in and revised in Cybernetics Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Cybernetics topic Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary[1] approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.

Member feedback about Cybernetics: Formal sciences Revolvy Brain revolvybrain technik benjy. Wiener equation topic A simple mathematical representation of Brownian motion, the Wiener equation, named after Norbert Wiener, assumes the current velocity of a fluid particle fluctuates randomly: Member feedback about Wiener equation: Stochastic differential equations Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Abstract Wiener space topic An abstract Wiener space is a mathematical object in measure theory, used to construct a "decent" strictly positive and locally finite measure on an infinite-dimensional vector space.

Member feedback about Abstract Wiener space: Wiener series topic In mathematics, the Wiener series or Wiener G-functional expansion originates from the book of Norbert Wiener.

Member feedback about Wiener series: Functional analysis Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Wiener sausage topic A long, thin Wiener sausage in 3 dimensions A short, fat Wiener sausage in 2 dimensions In the mathematical field of probability, the Wiener sausage is a neighborhood of the trace of a Brownian motion up to a time t, given by taking all points within a fixed distance of Brownian motion.

Member feedback about Wiener sausage: Statistical mechanics Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Wiener algebra topic In mathematics, the Wiener algebra, named after Norbert Wiener and usually denoted by A T , is the space of absolutely convergent Fourier series.

Member feedback about Wiener algebra: Banach algebras Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Deconvolution topic In mathematics, deconvolution is an algorithm-based process used to reverse the effects of convolution on recorded data.

Member feedback about Deconvolution: William James Sidis topic William James Sidis ; April 1, — July 17, was an American child prodigy with exceptional mathematical and linguistic skills.

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Biocybernetics topic Biocybernetics is the application of cybernetics to biological science, composed of biological disciplines that benefit from the application of cybernetics including neurology and multicellular systems.

Member feedback about Biocybernetics: Biocybernetics Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Craig Tracy topic Craig Tracy Craig Arnold Tracy born September 9, is an American mathematician, known for his contributions to mathematical physics and probability theory.

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Functional integration topic Functional integration is a collection of results in mathematics and physics where the domain of an integral is no longer a region of space, but a space of functions.

Member feedback about Functional integration: Quantum mechanics Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Stochastic calculus topic Stochastic calculus is a branch of mathematics that operates on stochastic processes.

Member feedback about Stochastic calculus: Mathematical finance Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Negative feedback topic A simple negative feedback system descriptive, for example, of some electronic amplifiers.

Member feedback about Negative feedback: Cybernetics Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Carmine Carmine Member feedback about Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility: Organizations started in Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Shannon—Weaver model topic The Shannon—Weaver model as portrayed in a report from the United States Office of Technology Assessment[1] The Shannon—Weaver model of communication has been called the "mother of all models.

Member feedback about Shannon—Weaver model: Information theory Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Calculus ratiocinator topic The Calculus ratiocinator is a theoretical universal logical calculation framework, a concept described in the writings of Gottfried Leibniz, usually paired with his more frequently mentioned characteristica universalis, a universal conceptual language.

Member feedback about Calculus ratiocinator: History of computing Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Polynomial chaos topic Polynomial chaos PC , also called Wiener chaos expansion, is a non-sampling-based method to determine evolution of uncertainty in a dynamical system, when there is probabilistic uncertainty in the system parameters.

Member feedback about Polynomial chaos: Mathematical institutes Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Louis Couffignal: French mathematicians Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Arturo Rosenblueth topic Arturo Rosenblueth Stearns October 2, — September 20, was a Mexican researcher, physician and physiologist, who is known as one of the pioneers of cybernetics.

Member feedback about Arturo Rosenblueth: Norbert topic Norbert is a Germanic given name, from nord "north" and berht "bright". Member feedback about Norbert: Germanic given names Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Cyberneticist topic A cyberneticist or a cybernetician is a person who practices cybernetics. Member feedback about Cyberneticist: Paley—Wiener integral topic In mathematics, the Paley—Wiener integral is a simple stochastic integral.

Member feedback about Paley—Wiener integral: Definitions of mathematical integration Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Stochastic process topic A computer-simulated realization of a Wiener or Brownian motion process on the surface of a sphere.

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