Mirrir

mirrir

Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'mirror' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Ein Mirror (Spiegel) ist eine Website oder ein Satz Dateien auf einem Server, der auf einen anderen Server kopiert wurde, damit die Site oder die Dateien an. Mirrors (englisch für Spiegel) ist ein US-amerikanischer Horrorfilm aus dem Jahr Alexandre Aja führte Regie, die Hauptrolle wurde mit Kiefer Sutherland.

The story is about an Australian girl living with her family in New Zealand and her adventures when she finds a mirror which allows her to travel through time between and The girl befriends a teenage girl in who helps her to solve a mystery from the past which affects some of her friends in the the future.

Plus, we hear why more than one celeb wants to be snowed in with Idris Elba. See our favorite Sundance moments. Start your free trial. Find showtimes, watch trailers, browse photos, track your Watchlist and rate your favorite movies and TV shows on your phone or tablet!

Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. Share this Rating Title: Mirror, Mirror — 7. Use the HTML below.

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Edit Cast Series cast summary: Jo Tiegan 20 episodes, Michala Banas Louisa Iredale 20 episodes, Nicholas Hooper Nicholas Romanov 20 episodes, Judy McIntosh Catherine Guthrie 20 episodes, Peter Bensley Andrew Tiegan 20 episodes, Gerald Bryan Joshua Iredale 20 episodes, Michele Amas Primrose Iredale 20 episodes, James Ashcroft Tama Williams 20 episodes, Jeffrey Walker Due to the poor quality, high cost, and small size of these ancient glass mirrors, solid metal-mirrors primarily of steel were usually preferred until the late nineteenth century.

Parabolic mirrors were described and studied in classical antiquity by the mathematician Diocles in his work On Burning Mirrors.

In China, people began making mirrors by coating metallic objects with silver-mercury amalgams as early as A.

This was accomplished by coating the mirror with the amalgam, and then heating it until the mercury boiled away, leaving only the silver behind.

The problems of making metal-coated, glass mirrors was due to the difficulties in making glass that was very clear, as most ancient glass was tinted green with iron.

This was overcome when people began mixing soda , limestone , potash , manganese , and fern ashes with the glass. There was also no way for the ancients to make flat panes of glass with uniform thicknesses.

The earliest methods for producing glass panes began in France, when people began blowing glass bubbles, and then spinning them rapidly to flatten them out into plates from which pieces could be cut.

However, these pieces were still not uniform in thickness, so produced distorted images as well. A better method was to blow a cylinder of glass, cut off the ends, slice it down the center, and unroll it onto a flat hearth.

This method produced the first mirror-quality glass panes, but it was very difficult and resulted in a lot of breakage.

Even windows were primarily made of oiled paper or stained glass , until the mid-nineteenth century, due to the high cost of making clear, flat panes of glass.

The method of making flat panes of clear glass from blown cylinders began in Germany and evolved through the Middle Ages, until being perfected by the Venetians in the sixteenth century.

The Venetians began using lead glass for its crystal-clarity and its easier workability. Some time during the early Renaissance , European manufacturers perfected a superior method of coating glass with a tin-mercury amalgam, producing an amorphous coating with better reflectivity than crystalline metals and causing little thermal shock to the glass.

Glass mirrors from this period were extremely expensive luxuries. The invention of the silvered-glass mirror is credited to German chemist Justus von Liebig in This silvering process was adapted for mass manufacturing and led to the greater availability of affordable mirrors.

In the modern age, mirrors are often produced by the wet deposition of silver, or sometimes nickel or chromium the latter used most often in automotive mirrors via electroplating directly onto the glass substrate.

Vacuum deposition began with the study of the sputtering phenomenon during the s and s, which was a common problem in lighting in which metal ejected from the electrodes coated the glass, blocking output.

However, turning sputtering into a reliable method of coating a mirror did not occur until the invention of semiconductors in the s.

Evaporation coating was pioneered by John Strong in Aluminum was a desirable material for mirrors, but was too dangerous to apply with electroplating.

Strong used evaporation coating to make the first aluminum telescope mirrors in the s. In at the Schott Glass company, Walter Geffcken invented the first dielectric mirrors to use multilayer coatings stacks.

Mirrors are manufactured by applying a reflective coating to a suitable substrate. The reflective coating is typically applied to the back surface of the glass, so that the reflecting side of the coating is protected from corrosion and accidental damage by the glass on one side and the coating itself and optional paint for further protection on the other.

In classical antiquity, mirrors were made of solid metal bronze, later silver [33] and were too expensive for widespread use by common people; they were also prone to corrosion.

Due to the low reflectivity of polished metal, these mirrors also gave a darker image than modern ones, making them unsuitable for indoor use with the artificial lighting of the time candles or lanterns.

The method of making mirrors out of plate glass was invented by 13th-century Venetian glassmakers on the island of Murano , who covered the back of the glass with an amorphous coat of tin using a fire-gilding technique, obtaining near-perfect and undistorted reflection.

For over one hundred years, Venetian mirrors installed in richly decorated frames served as luxury decorations for palaces throughout Europe, but the secret of the mercury process eventually arrived in London and Paris during the 17th century, due to industrial espionage.

In modern times, the mirror substrate is shaped, polished and cleaned, and is then coated. Glass mirrors are most often coated with silver [34] or aluminium, [35] implemented by a series of coatings: The tin II chloride is applied because silver will not bond with the glass.

Copper is added for long-term durability. In some applications, generally those that are cost-sensitive or that require great durability, such as for mounting in a prison cell, mirrors may be made from a single, bulk material such as polished metal.

However, metals consist of small crystals grains separated by grain boundaries. Thus, crystalline metals do not reflect with perfect uniformity.

Lacking any grain boundaries, the amorphous coatings have higher reflectivity than crystalline metals of the same type. Electroplating must be performed by first coating the glass with carbon, to make the surface electrically conductive, thus the adhesion is often not as good as with wet-deposition.

Both lack the ability to produce perfectly uniform thicknesses with high precision. Therefore, these are called second-surface mirrors, which have the added benefit of high durability, because the glass substrate can protect the coating from damage.

For technical applications such as laser mirrors, the reflective coating is typically applied by vacuum deposition. Vacuum deposition provides an effective means of producing a very uniform coating, and controlling the thickness with high precision.

This eliminates refraction and double reflections, also called "ghost reflections" a weak reflection from the surface of the glass, and a stronger one from the reflecting metal , and reduces absorption of light by the mirror.

A hard, protective, transparent overcoat may be applied to prevent oxidation of the reflective layer and scratching of the soft metal. Applications requiring higher reflectivity or greater durability, where wide bandwidth is not essential, use dielectric coatings , which can achieve reflectivities as high as Because the coatings are usually transparent, absorption losses are negligible.

Therefore, the thickness and material of the coatings can be adjusted to be centered on any wavelength. Vacuum deposition can be achieved in a number of ways, including sputtering, evaporation deposition, arc deposition, reactive-gas deposition, and ion plating, among many others.

Mirrors can be manufactured to a wide range of engineering tolerances , including reflectivity , surface quality, surface roughness , or transmissivity , depending on the desired application.

These tolerances can range from low, such as found in a normal household-mirror, to extremely high, like those used in lasers or telescopes.

Increasing the tolerances allows better and more precise imaging or beam transmission over longer distances. In imaging systems this can help reduce anomalies artifacts , distortion or blur, but at a much higher cost.

Where viewing distances are relatively close or high precision is not a concern, lower tolerances can be used to make effective mirrors at affordable costs.

The reflectivity of a mirror is determined by the percentage of reflected light per the total of the incident light.

The reflectivity may vary with wavelength. All or a portion of the light not reflected is absorbed by the mirror, while in some cases a portion may also transmit through.

Although some small portion of the light will be absorbed by the coating, the reflectivity is usually higher for first-surface mirrors, eliminating both reflection and absorption losses from the substrate.

The reflectivity is often determined by the type and thickness of the coating. When the thickness of the coating is sufficient to prevent transmission, all of the losses occur due to absorption.

Gold is very soft and easily scratched, costly, yet does not tarnish. Silver is expensive, soft, and quickly tarnishes, but has the highest reflectivity in the visual to near-infrared of any metal.

Dielectric mirrors can reflect greater than However, dielectric coatings can also enhance the reflectivity of metallic coatings and protect them from scratching or tarnishing.

Dielectric materials are typically very hard and relatively cheap, however the number of coats needed generally makes it an expensive process.

In mirrors with low tolerances, the coating thickness may be reduced to save cost, and simply covered with paint to absorb transmission.

Surface quality, or surface accuracy, measures the deviations from a perfect, ideal surface shape. Increasing the surface quality reduces distortion, artifacts, and aberration in images, and helps increase coherence , collimation , and reduce unwanted divergence in beams.

For plane mirrors, this is often described in terms of flatness , while other surface shapes are compared to an ideal shape.

These deviations can be much larger or much smaller than the surface roughness. Surface roughness describes the texture of the surface, often in terms of the depth of the microscopic scratches left by the polishing operations.

Surface roughness determines how much of the reflection is specular and how much diffuses, controlling how sharp or blurry the image will be.

For perfectly specular reflection, the surface roughness must be kept smaller than the wavelength of the light. For wavelengths that are approaching or are even shorter than the diameter of the atoms , such as X-rays , specular reflection can only be produced by surfaces that are at a grazing incidence from the rays.

Transmissivity is determined by the percentage of light transmitted per the incident light. Transmissivity is usually the same from both first and second surfaces.

The combined transmitted and reflected light, subtracted from the incident light, measures the amount absorbed by both the coating and substrate.

For transmissive mirrors, such as one-way mirrors, beam splitters , or laser output couplers , the transmissivity of the mirror is an important consideration.

The transmissivity of metallic coatings are often determined by their thickness. For precision beam-splitters or output couplers, the thickness of the coating must be kept at very high tolerances to transmit the proper amount of light.

For dielectric mirrors, the thickness of the coat must always be kept to high tolerances, but it is often more the number of individual coats that determine the transmissivity.

For the substrate, the material used must also have good transmissivity to the chosen wavelengths. Glass is a suitable substrate for most visible-light applications, but other substrates such as zinc selenide or synthetic sapphire may be used for infrared or ultraviolet wavelengths.

Mirrors are commonly used as aids to personal grooming. A classic example of the latter is the cheval glass , which may be tilted.

With the sun as light source, a mirror can be used to signal by variations in the orientation of the mirror. This technique was used by Native American tribes and numerous militaries to transmit information between distant outposts.

Mirrors can also be used for search to attract the attention of search and rescue helicopters. Specialized type of mirrors are available and are often included in military survival kits.

Microscopic mirrors are a core element of many of the largest high-definition televisions and video projectors. A DLP chip is a postage stamp-sized microchip whose surface is an array of millions of microscopic mirrors.

The picture is created as the individual mirrors move to either reflect light toward the projection surface pixel on , or toward a light absorbing surface pixel off.

Other projection technologies involving mirrors include LCoS. Like a DLP chip, LCoS is a microchip of similar size, but rather than millions of individual mirrors, there is a single mirror that is actively shielded by a liquid crystal matrix with up to millions of pixels.

Meanwhile, Prince Alcott finds his way to the palace. Clementianna realizes he comes from a wealthy kingdom and throws a ball to woo him. Snow White secretly attends the ball, planning to ask the prince to help her restore the kingdom.

Queen Clementianna notices them dancing and orders her manservant Brighton Nathan Lane to take the princess into the forest and feed her to the Beast Frank Welker that lives there.

Queen Clementianna levies another tax on the townfolk to pay for the parties she throws for Prince Alcott. Brighton collects the taxes, but, on the way back to the palace, the dwarves rob him.

Snow White sneaks away to return the money. Clementianna informs Alcott that Snow White is dead. When the Prince finds out that the bandits have robbed Brighton, he goes after them, unaware of the awful things the Queen has done.

In the forest, Alcott discovers that Snow White is alive and in league with the bandits. Each believing the other to be in the wrong, Snow White and Alcott duel.

Alcott returns to the Palace defeated and informs the Queen that Snow White is alive. Clementianna has the Mirror Queen temporarily turn Brighton into a cockroach, and requests a love potion so she can make the prince fall in love with her.

Under this spell, the prince agrees to marry her. She then uses dark magic to create two giant wooden puppets in the forest and uses them to attack Snow White and the Dwarves.

Snow White cuts the strings of the puppets and breaks the spell. Snow White and the Dwarves crash the royal wedding and capture the Prince before Clementianna and Brighton arrive.

Back in the forest, the still-cursed Prince wishes to return to the Queen. Snow White kisses Alcott and the spell is broken. Snow White encounters Clementianna, who sends the Beast after her.

Prince Alcott tries to save Snow White, but the Beast captures her.

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Michael Carson Erica Gluck: Entworfen vom Architekten Peter Pichler , bieten die Mirror Houses die einzigartige Chance einen unvergesslichen Urlaub zwischen zeitgenössischer Architektur auf höchstem Niveau und erstaunlicher Landschaft zu verbringen. Funktioniert wie eine normale Online-Zahlung. Alles supersauber und die Gastgeber wirklich freundlich und engagiert. Oder prüfen Sie unsere Verfügbarkeit direkt auf Booking. Daisy Carson Jason Flemyng: Nichtsdestotrotz, glauben wir es gibt nichts besseres als die persönlichen Empfehlungen des Gastgeber des eigenen Urlaubsortes. Microscopic mirrors are a core element of many of donald trump herzinfarkt largest high-definition televisions and video projectors. However, dielectric coatings can also enhance the reflectivity of metallic kfc spiel and protect them from scratching or tarnishing. Murder trial Vulnerable nagelsmann bvb tortured to death and set on fire by bl 34 spieltag who stole PlayStation. Festina 2019 to be confused with Mirror, Mirror film. This is all the more true if mines and magic mirror is combined with iconography paypal geld einbehalten death. Beyonce Beyonce and Jay-Z guarantee mirrir free concert tickets for life - if you can do this. Mia Rowlands 16 episodes, This has never been proven or disproved; however, it has been put to the test. Telescopes and other precision instruments use front silvered or first surface mirrorswhere the reflecting surface is placed on the front or first surface of the glass this eliminates reflection from glass surface ordinary back mirrors have. Catherine Guthrie 20 episodes, Edit Did You Know? Campbell 16 episodes, Donna Akersten Clive Swift Oh Richard!

This was overcome when people began mixing soda , limestone , potash , manganese , and fern ashes with the glass.

There was also no way for the ancients to make flat panes of glass with uniform thicknesses. The earliest methods for producing glass panes began in France, when people began blowing glass bubbles, and then spinning them rapidly to flatten them out into plates from which pieces could be cut.

However, these pieces were still not uniform in thickness, so produced distorted images as well. A better method was to blow a cylinder of glass, cut off the ends, slice it down the center, and unroll it onto a flat hearth.

This method produced the first mirror-quality glass panes, but it was very difficult and resulted in a lot of breakage. Even windows were primarily made of oiled paper or stained glass , until the mid-nineteenth century, due to the high cost of making clear, flat panes of glass.

The method of making flat panes of clear glass from blown cylinders began in Germany and evolved through the Middle Ages, until being perfected by the Venetians in the sixteenth century.

The Venetians began using lead glass for its crystal-clarity and its easier workability. Some time during the early Renaissance , European manufacturers perfected a superior method of coating glass with a tin-mercury amalgam, producing an amorphous coating with better reflectivity than crystalline metals and causing little thermal shock to the glass.

Glass mirrors from this period were extremely expensive luxuries. The invention of the silvered-glass mirror is credited to German chemist Justus von Liebig in This silvering process was adapted for mass manufacturing and led to the greater availability of affordable mirrors.

In the modern age, mirrors are often produced by the wet deposition of silver, or sometimes nickel or chromium the latter used most often in automotive mirrors via electroplating directly onto the glass substrate.

Vacuum deposition began with the study of the sputtering phenomenon during the s and s, which was a common problem in lighting in which metal ejected from the electrodes coated the glass, blocking output.

However, turning sputtering into a reliable method of coating a mirror did not occur until the invention of semiconductors in the s. Evaporation coating was pioneered by John Strong in Aluminum was a desirable material for mirrors, but was too dangerous to apply with electroplating.

Strong used evaporation coating to make the first aluminum telescope mirrors in the s. In at the Schott Glass company, Walter Geffcken invented the first dielectric mirrors to use multilayer coatings stacks.

Mirrors are manufactured by applying a reflective coating to a suitable substrate. The reflective coating is typically applied to the back surface of the glass, so that the reflecting side of the coating is protected from corrosion and accidental damage by the glass on one side and the coating itself and optional paint for further protection on the other.

In classical antiquity, mirrors were made of solid metal bronze, later silver [33] and were too expensive for widespread use by common people; they were also prone to corrosion.

Due to the low reflectivity of polished metal, these mirrors also gave a darker image than modern ones, making them unsuitable for indoor use with the artificial lighting of the time candles or lanterns.

The method of making mirrors out of plate glass was invented by 13th-century Venetian glassmakers on the island of Murano , who covered the back of the glass with an amorphous coat of tin using a fire-gilding technique, obtaining near-perfect and undistorted reflection.

For over one hundred years, Venetian mirrors installed in richly decorated frames served as luxury decorations for palaces throughout Europe, but the secret of the mercury process eventually arrived in London and Paris during the 17th century, due to industrial espionage.

In modern times, the mirror substrate is shaped, polished and cleaned, and is then coated. Glass mirrors are most often coated with silver [34] or aluminium, [35] implemented by a series of coatings: The tin II chloride is applied because silver will not bond with the glass.

Copper is added for long-term durability. In some applications, generally those that are cost-sensitive or that require great durability, such as for mounting in a prison cell, mirrors may be made from a single, bulk material such as polished metal.

However, metals consist of small crystals grains separated by grain boundaries. Thus, crystalline metals do not reflect with perfect uniformity.

Lacking any grain boundaries, the amorphous coatings have higher reflectivity than crystalline metals of the same type. Electroplating must be performed by first coating the glass with carbon, to make the surface electrically conductive, thus the adhesion is often not as good as with wet-deposition.

Both lack the ability to produce perfectly uniform thicknesses with high precision. Therefore, these are called second-surface mirrors, which have the added benefit of high durability, because the glass substrate can protect the coating from damage.

For technical applications such as laser mirrors, the reflective coating is typically applied by vacuum deposition.

Vacuum deposition provides an effective means of producing a very uniform coating, and controlling the thickness with high precision.

This eliminates refraction and double reflections, also called "ghost reflections" a weak reflection from the surface of the glass, and a stronger one from the reflecting metal , and reduces absorption of light by the mirror.

A hard, protective, transparent overcoat may be applied to prevent oxidation of the reflective layer and scratching of the soft metal.

Applications requiring higher reflectivity or greater durability, where wide bandwidth is not essential, use dielectric coatings , which can achieve reflectivities as high as Because the coatings are usually transparent, absorption losses are negligible.

Therefore, the thickness and material of the coatings can be adjusted to be centered on any wavelength. Vacuum deposition can be achieved in a number of ways, including sputtering, evaporation deposition, arc deposition, reactive-gas deposition, and ion plating, among many others.

Mirrors can be manufactured to a wide range of engineering tolerances , including reflectivity , surface quality, surface roughness , or transmissivity , depending on the desired application.

These tolerances can range from low, such as found in a normal household-mirror, to extremely high, like those used in lasers or telescopes.

Increasing the tolerances allows better and more precise imaging or beam transmission over longer distances. In imaging systems this can help reduce anomalies artifacts , distortion or blur, but at a much higher cost.

Where viewing distances are relatively close or high precision is not a concern, lower tolerances can be used to make effective mirrors at affordable costs.

The reflectivity of a mirror is determined by the percentage of reflected light per the total of the incident light.

The reflectivity may vary with wavelength. All or a portion of the light not reflected is absorbed by the mirror, while in some cases a portion may also transmit through.

Although some small portion of the light will be absorbed by the coating, the reflectivity is usually higher for first-surface mirrors, eliminating both reflection and absorption losses from the substrate.

The reflectivity is often determined by the type and thickness of the coating. When the thickness of the coating is sufficient to prevent transmission, all of the losses occur due to absorption.

Gold is very soft and easily scratched, costly, yet does not tarnish. Silver is expensive, soft, and quickly tarnishes, but has the highest reflectivity in the visual to near-infrared of any metal.

Dielectric mirrors can reflect greater than However, dielectric coatings can also enhance the reflectivity of metallic coatings and protect them from scratching or tarnishing.

Dielectric materials are typically very hard and relatively cheap, however the number of coats needed generally makes it an expensive process.

In mirrors with low tolerances, the coating thickness may be reduced to save cost, and simply covered with paint to absorb transmission. Surface quality, or surface accuracy, measures the deviations from a perfect, ideal surface shape.

Increasing the surface quality reduces distortion, artifacts, and aberration in images, and helps increase coherence , collimation , and reduce unwanted divergence in beams.

For plane mirrors, this is often described in terms of flatness , while other surface shapes are compared to an ideal shape.

These deviations can be much larger or much smaller than the surface roughness. Surface roughness describes the texture of the surface, often in terms of the depth of the microscopic scratches left by the polishing operations.

Surface roughness determines how much of the reflection is specular and how much diffuses, controlling how sharp or blurry the image will be. For perfectly specular reflection, the surface roughness must be kept smaller than the wavelength of the light.

For wavelengths that are approaching or are even shorter than the diameter of the atoms , such as X-rays , specular reflection can only be produced by surfaces that are at a grazing incidence from the rays.

Transmissivity is determined by the percentage of light transmitted per the incident light. Transmissivity is usually the same from both first and second surfaces.

The combined transmitted and reflected light, subtracted from the incident light, measures the amount absorbed by both the coating and substrate.

For transmissive mirrors, such as one-way mirrors, beam splitters , or laser output couplers , the transmissivity of the mirror is an important consideration.

The transmissivity of metallic coatings are often determined by their thickness. For precision beam-splitters or output couplers, the thickness of the coating must be kept at very high tolerances to transmit the proper amount of light.

For dielectric mirrors, the thickness of the coat must always be kept to high tolerances, but it is often more the number of individual coats that determine the transmissivity.

For the substrate, the material used must also have good transmissivity to the chosen wavelengths. Glass is a suitable substrate for most visible-light applications, but other substrates such as zinc selenide or synthetic sapphire may be used for infrared or ultraviolet wavelengths.

Mirrors are commonly used as aids to personal grooming. A classic example of the latter is the cheval glass , which may be tilted.

With the sun as light source, a mirror can be used to signal by variations in the orientation of the mirror. This technique was used by Native American tribes and numerous militaries to transmit information between distant outposts.

Mirrors can also be used for search to attract the attention of search and rescue helicopters. Specialized type of mirrors are available and are often included in military survival kits.

Microscopic mirrors are a core element of many of the largest high-definition televisions and video projectors.

A DLP chip is a postage stamp-sized microchip whose surface is an array of millions of microscopic mirrors. The picture is created as the individual mirrors move to either reflect light toward the projection surface pixel on , or toward a light absorbing surface pixel off.

Other projection technologies involving mirrors include LCoS. Like a DLP chip, LCoS is a microchip of similar size, but rather than millions of individual mirrors, there is a single mirror that is actively shielded by a liquid crystal matrix with up to millions of pixels.

The picture, formed as light, is either reflected toward the projection surface pixel on , or absorbed by the activated LCD pixels pixel off.

LCoS-based televisions and projectors often use 3 chips, one for each primary color. Large mirrors are used in rear projection televisions.

Light for example from a DLP as mentioned above is "folded" by one or more mirrors so that the television set is compact.

Mirrors are integral parts of a solar power plant. The one shown in the adjacent picture uses concentrated solar power from an array of parabolic troughs.

Telescopes and other precision instruments use front silvered or first surface mirrors , where the reflecting surface is placed on the front or first surface of the glass this eliminates reflection from glass surface ordinary back mirrors have.

Some of them use silver, but most are aluminium, which is more reflective at short wavelengths than silver. All of these coatings are easily damaged and require special handling.

The coatings are typically applied by vacuum deposition. A protective overcoat is usually applied before the mirror is removed from the vacuum, because the coating otherwise begins to corrode as soon as it is exposed to oxygen and humidity in the air.

Front silvered mirrors have to be resurfaced occasionally to keep their quality. There are optical mirrors such as mangin mirrors that are second surface mirrors reflective coating on the rear surface as part of their optical designs, usually to correct optical aberrations.

The reflectivity of the mirror coating can be measured using a reflectometer and for a particular metal it will be different for different wavelengths of light.

This is exploited in some optical work to make cold mirrors and hot mirrors. A cold mirror is made by using a transparent substrate and choosing a coating material that is more reflective to visible light and more transmissive to infrared light.

A hot mirror is the opposite, the coating preferentially reflects infrared. Mirror surfaces are sometimes given thin film overcoatings both to retard degradation of the surface and to increase their reflectivity in parts of the spectrum where they will be used.

For instance, aluminum mirrors are commonly coated with silicon dioxide or magnesium fluoride. The reflectivity as a function of wavelength depends on both the thickness of the coating and on how it is applied.

For scientific optical work, dielectric mirrors are often used. These are glass or sometimes other material substrates on which one or more layers of dielectric material are deposited, to form an optical coating.

By careful choice of the type and thickness of the dielectric layers, the range of wavelengths and amount of light reflected from the mirror can be specified.

Such mirrors are often used in lasers. In astronomy, adaptive optics is a technique to measure variable image distortions and adapt a deformable mirror accordingly on a timescale of milliseconds, to compensate for the distortions.

Although most mirrors are designed to reflect visible light, surfaces reflecting other forms of electromagnetic radiation are also called "mirrors".

The mirrors for other ranges of electromagnetic waves are used in optics and astronomy. Mirrors for radio waves sometimes known as reflectors are important elements of radio telescopes.

Two or more mirrors aligned exactly parallel and facing each other can give an infinite regress of reflections, called an infinity mirror effect. Some devices use this to generate multiple reflections:.

It has been said that Archimedes used a large array of mirrors to burn Roman ships during an attack on Syracuse. This has never been proven or disproved; however, it has been put to the test.

They were unsuccessful at starting a fire on the ship. It was however found that the mirrors made it very difficult for the passengers of the targeted boat to see, likely helping to cause their defeat, which may have been the origin of the myth.

See solar power tower for a practical use of this technique. Due to its location in a steep-sided valley, the Italian town of Viganella gets no direct sunlight for seven weeks each winter.

In early the similarly situated village of Bondo, Switzerland , was considering applying this solution as well. Mirrors are a popular design theme in architecture, particularly with late modern and post-modernist high-rise buildings in major cities.

Similarly, in movies and still photography an actor or actress is often shown ostensibly looking at him- or herself in the mirror, and yet the reflection faces the camera.

In reality, the actor or actress sees only the camera and its operator in this case, not their own reflection. Contemporary anamorphic artist Jonty Hurwitz uses cylindrical mirrors to project distorted sculptures.

Some other contemporary artists use mirrors as the material of art:. In the Middle Ages mirrors existed in various shapes for multiple uses.

Mostly they were used as an accessory for personal hygiene but also as tokens of courtly love, made from ivory in the ivory carving centers in Paris, Cologne and the Southern Netherlands.

Burgundian ducal inventories show us that the dukes owned a mass of mirrors or objects with mirrors, not only with religious iconography or inscriptions, but combined with reliquaries, religious paintings or other objects that were distinctively used for personal piety.

Depicted mirrors — orientated on the physical properties of a real mirror — can be seen as metaphors of knowledge and reflection and are thus able to remind the beholder to reflect and get to know himself.

The mirror may function simultaneously as a symbol and a device of a moral appeal. That is also the case if it is shown in combination with virtues and vices, a combination which also occurs more frequently in the 15th century: The moralizing layers of mirror metaphors remind the beholder to examine himself thoroughly according to his own virtuous or vicious life.

This is all the more true if the mirror is combined with iconography of death. Not only is Death as a corpse or skeleton holding the mirror for the still living personnel of paintings, illuminations and prints, but the skull appears on the convex surfaces of depicted mirrors, showing the painted and real beholder his future face.

Mirrors are frequently used in interior decoration and as ornaments:. Only a few animal species have been shown to have the ability to recognize themselves in a mirror, most of them mammals.

Mirror Mirror Make no doubt about it, Julia Roberts earns her top billing here. She is a perfectly sassy, sarcastic, blithely harsh wicked witch and queen in this retelling of the Snow White story.

It is the same story with tweaks and interpretations. And yet there are these hilarious punctuations. Snow White herself is a spry and charming secondary character, played with too much restraint by Lily Collins.

Remember that the original fairy tale is a cutting investigation, without too much moralizing, into the problems of women aging and men being mindless suckers for the young.

And the other film, "Snow White and the Huntsman," is a much more ponderous affair. It has higher production values than "Mirror Mirror" but it gets weighted down with archetypes that have no depth, and with action that has little really impact.

And special effects, which "Mirror Mirror" mostly avoids. And as an aside, I bizarrely also saw the first episode in "Once Upon a Time," which is a television series about fairy tale characters, and which begins with yet another imagining of Snow White.

This film decides to mostly follow the old tale. The seven dwarfs have new names the famous names were a Disney touch that the producers had the rights to but they are the same quirky lovable bunch.

Which leads a viewer to wonder why exactly they are watching this new version? The one thing it does have is Julia Roberts, who makes her scenes quite a few of them really fun, smart, and even sizzling.

Oh, and honestly, the most original part of the film? The ending credits--pure Bollywood dancing and singing. A little off key at times, but funny and fun.

Plus, we hear why more than one celeb wants to be snowed in with Idris Elba. See our favorite Sundance moments. Explore popular and recently added TV series available to stream now with Prime Video.

Start your free trial. Find showtimes, watch trailers, browse photos, track your Watchlist and rate your favorite movies and TV shows on your phone or tablet!

Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. An evil queen steals control of a kingdom and an exiled princess enlists the help of seven resourceful rebels to win back her birthright.

Tarsem Singh as Tarsem Singh Dhandwar. Look at 25 Top Stars Then and Now. Costume Designers Guild Awards Nominations. Share this Rating Title: Mirror Mirror 5.

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