The government of Germany and the Bundesbank were in major disagreement over the exchange rate between the East German mark and the German mark.
France and the United Kingdom were opposed to German reunification, and attempted to influence the Soviet Union to stop it. The policy was "hard" in relation to the policies of certain other central banks in Europe.
The "hard" and "soft" was in respect to the aims of inflation and political interference. From , the inscription Bundesrepublik Deutschland Federal Republic of Germany appeared on the coins.
These coins were issued in denominations of 1, 2, 5, and 10 pfennigs. The 1- and 2-pfennig coins were struck in bronze clad steel although during some years the 2 pfennigs was issued in solid bronze while 5 and 10 pfennigs were brass clad steel.
In , cupronickel pfennig and 1-mark coins were released, while a cupronickel 2 marks and a. Cupronickel replaced silver in the 5 marks in The 2- and 5-mark coins have often been used for commemorative themes, though typically only the generic design for the 5 marks is intended for circulation.
Commemorative silver mark coins have also been issued which have periodically found their way into circulation. Unlike other European countries, Germany retained the use of the smallest coins 1 and 2 pfennigs until adoption of the euro.
The weights and dimensions of the coins can be found in an FAQ of the Bundesbank. Unlike other countries such as Australia there was no attempt or proposal suggested for the withdrawal of the 1- and 2-pfennig coins.
Both coins were still in circulation in and supermarkets in particular still marked prices to the nearest pfennig.
This penchant for accuracy continues with the euro while Finland or the Netherlands for example, price to the nearest 5 cents with the 1-cent coin still encountered in Germany.
On 27 December , the German government enacted a law authorizing the Bundesbank to issue, in , a special. The coin had the exact design and dimensions of the circulating cupro-nickel DM 1 coin, with the exception of the inscription on the reverse, which read "Deutsche Bundesbank" instead of "Bundesrepublik Deutschland" , as the Bundesbank was the issuing authority in this case.
A total of one million gold 1-mark coins were minted , at each of the five mints and were sold beginning in mid through German coin dealers on behalf of the Bundesbank.
The issue price varied by dealer but averaged approximately United States dollars. German coins bear a mint mark, indicating where the coin was minted.
The mint mark A was also used for German mark coins minted in Berlin beginning in following the reunification of Germany. These mint marks have been continued on the German euro coins.
Between July 1, the currency union with East Germany and July 1, , East German coins in denominations up to 50 pfennigs continued to circulate as Deutsche Mark coins at their face value, owing to a temporary shortage of small coins.
These coins were legal tender only in the territory of the former East Germany. In colloquial German the pfennig coin was sometimes called a groschen cf.
Likewise, sechser sixer could refer to a coin of 5 pfennigs. Both colloquialisms refer to several pre currencies of the previously independent states notably Prussia , where a groschen was subdivided into 12 pfennigs, hence half a groschen into 6.
After , 12 old pfennigs would be converted into 10 pfennigs of the mark, hence pfennig coins inherited the "Groschen" name and 5-pfennig coins inherited the "sechser" name.
Both usages are only regional and may not be understood in areas where a Groschen coin did not exist before In particular, the usage of "sechser" is less widespread.
A reserve series BBk II was commissioned on July 1, , consisting of 10, 20, 50 and mark banknotes. The notes were printed between and in fear if the Eastern Bloc would start systematically counterfeiting the BBk I series of banknotes to cripple the economy, then they would quickly be replaced by emergency notes.
The design of German banknotes remained unchanged during the s, s and s. During this period, forgery technology made significant advances and so, in the late s, the Bundesbank decided to issue a new series of Deutsche Mark banknotes.
Famous national artists and scientists were chosen to be portrayed on the new banknotes. Male and female artists were chosen in equal numbers.
The reverses of the notes refer to the work of the person on the obverse. The new security features were: The reason for this gradual introduction was, that public should become familiar with one single denomination, before introducing a new one.
The last three denominations were rarely seen in circulation and were introduced in one step. Furthermore, the colours were changed slightly to hamper counterfeiting.
The German name of the currency is Deutsche Mark fem. In German, the adjective "deutsche" adjective for "German" in feminine singular nominative form is capitalized because it is part of a proper name, while the noun "Mark", like all German nouns, is always capitalized.
The English loanword "Deutschmark" has a slightly different spelling and one syllable fewer possibly due to the frequency of silent e in English , and a plural form in -s.
Like Deutsche Mark , D-Mark and Mark do not take the plural in German when used with numbers like all names of units , the singular being used to refer to any amount of money e.
His work in this period also revolved around the concept of "distributive justice", relating to the distribution of goods and conditions affecting the well-being of individuals in a group, as a separate concept from procedural justice.
This research culminated in his book Distributive Justice. Another major theme of his work was the concept of "Crude Law", which studied the relationships between attitudes, behavior, and relationships.
Through his research Deutsch determined that the typical effects of a given relationship tend to induce that relationship. Thus, the typical effects of cooperation induce friendly, helpful behavior and friendly, helpful behavior will induce a cooperative relationship.
His Crude Law as well as his research into distributive justice expanded the breadth of his body of work in the field of conflict resolution.
In the ICCCR inaugurated the annual Morton Deutsch Award, provided to both a scholar-practitioner in the field of social justice and also to the winner of a student paper competition.
The ceremony for the awards is held each year in the month of April. Theory and Practice , given to a practitioner that contributes to the theory of the field of conflict resolution or vice versa.
Deutsch officially retired from teaching in but has authored more than 50 papers or book chapters between his retirement and ,  as well as many more in recent years.
Over his career he mentored nearly 70 PhD students, most of them at Teachers College. The Intellectual Legacy of Morton Deutsch. Journal of Peace Psychology.
The Columbia University Libraries house the Morton Deutsch Collection, which consists of a print and online archive of his work. Thorndike Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Education.
His citation for the award stated that Deutsch had also won "the G. Deutsch has received several lifetime achievement awards for his work on conflict management, cooperative learning, peace psychology, and the applications of psychology to social issues".
In addition to receiving these awards, he has been honored by the establishment of the Morton Deutsch Conflict Resolution Award by the International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Review of General Psychology. Explicit use of et al. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, Volume 4.
Association for Psychological Science. Retrieved June 12, The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Furthermore we will never ask you to upload or invalidate your TAN list.
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