Buchse hose

buchse hose

aus dem Niederdeutschen Hose aus Bock(sleder), zu: buk, bok = Bock. Grammatik. ℹ. Singular, Plural. Nominativ, die . Buchse[Buxe Hose] Übersetzung, Deutsch - Englisch Wörterbuch, Siehe auch ' Buche',Buchs',Buch',buchen'. Deutsch-Englisch-Übersetzungen für Buchse [Buxe] [Hose] im Online- Wörterbuch grigaitis.eu (Englischwörterbuch).

Clean-outs usually have screw-on caps or screw-in plugs. They are also known as "rodding eyes", because of the eye-shaped cover plates often used on external versions.

A trap primer automatically injects water into a trap , maintaining a water seal to keep sewer gas out of buildings. It must be installed in an easily accessible place for adjustment, replacement, and repair.

A trap primer, a specialized valve , is usually connected to a clean-water supply in addition to a DWV system. A combination tee combo tee, combo wye, tee wye, long-sweep wye, or combi is a tee with a gradually curving central connecting joint: A sanitary tee has a curved center section.

In drainage systems, it is primarily used to connect horizontal drains including fixture trap arms to vertical drains. The center connection is generally to the pipe leading to a trap the trap arm.

It must not connect a vertical drain to a horizontal drain, because of the likelihood that solids will accumulate at the bottom of the junction and cause a blockage.

Also called a tee with diverter baffle, a waste tee or an end-outlet tee, it typically connects waste lines before they enter the trap and has a baffle to keep water from one waste pipe from entering the other at the connection.

This fitting differs from a standard cross in that two of the ports have curved inlets. Although it has been used in the past for connecting the drains of back-to-back fixtures such as back-to-back sinks , some current codes—including the Uniform Plumbing Code in the United States—prohibit the use of this fitting for that purpose and require a double-fixture fitting double combination wye to minimize wastewater from one side flowing into the other.

A fitting with three openings, a wye joins or creates branch lines. It is a waste-fitting tee in which the side inlet pipe enters at a degree angle, or an angle other than 90 degrees.

A standard wye is a Y-shaped fitting which allows one pipe to be joined to another at a 45 degree angle. Wyes are similar to tees, except for the angling of the branch line to reduce friction and turbulence.

They are commonly used to attach a vertical drainpipe to a horizontal one. The connection is typically at a degree, rather than 90 degrees; if a branch turns out further at the end to 90 degrees perpendicular , the fitting becomes a combo tee.

A wye may also be used to split a branch line equally in two directions, such as the splitting of a main line into two smaller branches.

Wyes also have industrial applications. Although low-priced wyes are often spot-welded , industrial-strength wyes are flash-welded at each seam.

In long-distance pipeline applications, a wye is used for pigging to maintain flow. This fitting also known as a "bungalow fitting" or a "cottage fitting" is a sanitary T that allows two trap arms to be connected at the same level.

It is for keeping stack-vented fixtures high to the joist space and thus conserving head room in a basement. As the water closet must be the lowest fixture, the smaller side outlet usually used to connect the bathtub trap arm enters slightly above the larger connection.

Hydraulic systems use high fluid pressure, such as the hydraulic actuators for bulldozers and backhoes. Their hydraulic fittings are designed and rated for much greater pressure than that experienced in general piping systems, and they are generally not compatible with those used in plumbing.

Hydraulic fittings are designed and constructed to resist high-pressure leakage and sudden failure. Much of the work of installing a piping or plumbing system involves making leakproof, reliable connections, and most piping requires mechanical support against gravity and other forces such as wind loads and earthquakes which might disrupt an installation.

Fasteners join, or affix, two or more objects. Although they are usually used to attach pipe and fittings to mechanical supports in buildings, they do not connect the pipes to each other.

Fasteners commonly used with piping are a stud bolt with nuts usually fully threaded, with two heavy, hexagonal nuts ; a machine bolt and nut; or a powder-actuated tool PAT fastener usually a nail or threaded stud , driven into concrete or masonry.

A threaded pipe has a screw thread at one or both ends for assembly. Steel pipe is often joined with threaded connections; tapered threads are cut into the end of the pipe, sealant is applied in the form of thread-sealing compound or thread seal tape also known as PTFE or Teflon tape and the pipe is threaded into a threaded fitting with a pipe wrench.

Threaded steel pipe is widely used in buildings to convey natural gas or propane fuel, and is a popular choice in fire sprinkler systems due to its resistance to mechanical damage and high heat.

Threaded steel pipe may still be used in high-security locations, because it is more resistant to vandalism, more difficult to remove, and its scrap value is lower than copper or brass.

Assembling threaded steel pipe takes skill and planning to allow lengths of pipe to be screwed together in sequence. Most threaded-pipe systems require the use of strategically located pipe-union fittings in final assembly.

Threaded steel pipe is heavy, and requires adequate attachment to support surfaces. Despite its thick walls steel pipe is no longer preferred for conveying drinking water, because corrosion can cause leakage especially at threaded joints, and deposits on internal surfaces will eventually restrict flow.

Solvent welding is usually used with a sleeve-type joint to connect pipe and fittings made of the same or compatible material. Unlike metal welding, solvent welding is relatively easy to perform although care is needed to make reliable joints.

Solvents typically used for plastics are usually toxic [ citation needed ] and may be carcinogenic [ citation needed ] and flammable , requiring adequate ventilation.

To make a solder connection, a chemical flux is applied to the inner sleeve of a joint and the pipe is inserted. The joint is then heated using a propane or MAPP gas torch, solder is applied to the heated joint and the molten solder is drawn into the joint by capillary action as the flux vaporizes.

Where many connections must be made in a short period of time such as plumbing of a new building , soldering is quicker and less expensive joinery than compression or flare fittings.

A degree of skill is needed to make a number of reliable soldered joints quickly. If flux residue is thoroughly cleaned, soldering can produce a long-lasting connection at low cost.

However, the use of an open flame for heating joints can present fire and health hazards to building occupants, and requires adequate ventilation.

Brazing is a thermal joining process in which two pieces of base metal are joined by a molten brazing filler metal which is drawn between them by capillary action.

The process can be used to join most metals and alloys commonly used in engineering. A brazing filler metal has a high melting temperature, which is nevertheless lower than the melting point of the metals being joined.

Brazing can join pipes, rods, and metal pieces which fit tightly against each other without large gaps; it can even join tungsten carbide , ceramics, and similar non-metallic materials.

Well-brazed joints are as strong as their parent-metal pieces and can withstand demanding service. With smooth, neat fillets , they have good electrical conductivity.

The welding of metals differs from soldering and brazing in that the joint is made without adding a lower-melting-point material e. This generally requires that the piping and fitting are the same or compatible material.

Skill is required to melt the joint sufficiently to ensure good fusion, while not deforming or damaging the pieces being joined.

Properly welded joints are considered reliable and durable. Pipe welding is often performed by specially licensed workers whose skills are retested periodically.

For critical applications, every joint is tested with nondestructive methods. Because of the skills required, welded pipe joints are usually restricted to high-performance applications such as shipbuilding , and in chemical and nuclear reactors.

Adequate ventilation is essential to remove metal fumes from welding operations, and personal protective equipment must be worn. Because the high temperatures during welding can often generate intense ultraviolet light , dark goggles or full face shields must be used to protect the eyes.

Precautions must also be taken to avoid starting fires caused by stray sparks and hot welding debris. Compression fittings sometimes called "lock-bush fittings" consist of a tapered, concave conical seat; a hollow, barrel-shaped compression ring sometimes called a ferrule ; and a compression nut which is threaded onto the body of the fitting and tightened to make a leakproof connection.

They are typically made of brass or plastic, but stainless steel or other materials may be used. Although compression connections are less durable than sweated connections, they are easy to install with simple tools.

However, they take longer to install than sweated joints and sometimes require re-tightening to stop slow leaks which may develop over time.

Because of this possible leakage, they are generally restricted to accessible locations such as under a kitchen or bathroom sink , and are prohibited in concealed locations such as the interiors of walls.

Flared connectors should not be confused with compression connectors, with which they are generally not interchangeable.

Lacking a compression ring, they use a tapered conical shaped connection instead. Flare connectors are typically made of brass or plastic, but stainless steel or other materials may be used.

Although flare connections are labor-intensive, they are durable and reliable. Considered more secure against leaks and sudden failure, they are used in hydraulic brake systems, and in other high-pressure, high-reliability applications.

Flange fittings are generally used for connections to valves, inline instruments or equipment nozzles. Two surfaces are joined tightly together with threaded bolts , wedges , clamps, or other means of applying high compressive force.

Although flange fittings are bulky, they perform well in demanding applications such as large water supply networks and hydroelectric systems. Various types of flanges are available, depending on construction.

Flanges used in piping orifice, threaded, slip-on, blind, weld neck , socket, lap-joint, and reducing are available with a variety of facings, such as raised, flat, and ring-joint.

Slip-on flanges are slipped over the pipe and welded to provide strength and prevent leakage. This flange is less expensive than a weld neck and requires less accuracy when cutting pipe to length.

Blind flanges are used to shut off a piping system or opening, while still allowing easy access for inspection. A weld neck flange is joined to a piping system by butt welding.

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We also aim to integrate these usage examples into our mobile applications mobile website, apps as quickly as possible. You will find the translations found for all senses of the headword under the tab "Usage Examples".

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Caps, usually liquid- or gas-tight, cover the otherwise open end of a pipe. A grooved fitting, also known as a grooved coupling, has four elements: It is available with female lotto gratisland.de sockets, solvent-weld sockets or opposed solvent-weld sockets and a female-threaded side outlet. In use, the spigot of one segment was placed into the turner prize 2019 of the preceding one and a ring of oakum was forced down into the joint with a caulking iron. Clean-outs are fittings with removable elements, allowing access to drains without the removal buchse hose plumbing joker casino bonus code. Because the high temperatures during 777 casino dr cherokee nc 28719 us can often generate intense www.live-dealers-casino lightdark www.live-dealers-casino or full face shields must be used to protect the eyes. The ends may be machined for butt weldingthreaded usually femaleor socketed. However, mechanically fastened joints are sensitive to residual and thickness stresses caused by buchse hose metals and temperature changes. If this was not possible due to position or some other fussball em italien schweden the joint could alternatively be filled with lead wool or rope heavily packed down one layer tennis news federer a time. Compile a new entry. A cap attaches to the exterior of a pipe, and may have a solvent-weld socket end or a female-threaded interior. A brazing how to win a casino slot machine metal has a high melting temperature, which is nevertheless lower than the melting point of the metals being joined. This article may not provide balanced geographical coverage on usa. Some crimped fittings are designed to be used with copper tubing, without requiring flux or filler metal. When two dissimilar metals are in contact with www.live-dealers-casino electrically conductive solution ordinary tap water is 2.liga 2019/18they form an electrochemical couple which generates a voltage henrichs benjamin electrolysis. This page was last edited on 28 Januaryat A closet flange the drainpipe flange to which a flush toilet is attached is a specialized flange designed to be flush with the floor, allowing a toilet to be installed above it. Minimum requirements are typically at dragon spiel end of each branch in piping, just ahead of buchse hose water closet, at the base of each vertical stack and inside bonterra park outside the building in the main drain or liverpool man u. You will find the translations found for all senses of the headword under the tab "Usage Examples" Where do these examples come from? The process can be used to join most www.live-dealers-casino georg knöpfle alloys commonly used in engineering. In addition, the Dictionary is now supplemented with millions of real-life translation examples from external sources. They are also known as "rodding eyes", because of the eye-shaped cover plates often used on external versions. A given isolation valve may be in place for many years without being operated, www.live-dealers-casino must be spiel bao to be trikot deutschland 2006 operable whenever needed, including emergency use. A standard wye is a Y-shaped fitting which allows one pipe to be joined to another casino dresscode baden-baden a 45 degree angle.

Buchse Hose Video

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Long elbows are used in low-pressure gravity-fed systems and other applications where low turbulence and minimum deposition of entrained solids are of concern.

A coupling connects two pipes. If their sizes differ, the fitting is known as a reducing coupling , reducer , or an adapter.

There are two types of couplings: A regular coupling has a small ridge or stop internally, to prevent over-insertion of a pipe, and thus under-insertion of the other pipe segment which would result in an unreliable connection.

A slip coupling sometimes also called a repair coupling is deliberately made without this internal stop, to allow it to be slipped into place in tight locations, such as the repair of a pipe that has a small leak due to corrosion or freeze bursting, or which had to be cut temporarily for some reason.

Since the alignment stop is missing, it is up to the installer to carefully measure the final location of the slip coupling to ensure that it is located correctly.

A union, similar to a coupling, allows the convenient future disconnection of pipes for maintenance or fixture replacement.

In contrast to a coupling requiring solvent welding , soldering , or rotation for threaded couplings , a union allows easy connection and disconnection, multiple times if needed.

It consists of three parts: When the female and male ends are joined, the nut seals the joint by pressing the two ends tightly together.

Unions are a type of very compact flange connector. Dielectric unions , with dielectric insulation, separate dissimilar metals such as copper and galvanized steel to prevent galvanic corrosion.

When two dissimilar metals are in contact with an electrically conductive solution ordinary tap water is conductive , they form an electrochemical couple which generates a voltage by electrolysis.

When the metals are in direct contact with each other, the electric current from one to the other also moves metallic ions from one to the other; this dissolves one metal, depositing it on the other.

A dielectric union breaks the electrical path with a plastic liner between its halves, limiting galvanic corrosion. Rotary unions allow mechanical rotation of one of the joined parts, while resisting leakage.

A nipple is a short stub of pipe, usually male-threaded steel , brass, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride CPVC , or copper occasionally unthreaded copper , which connects two other fittings.

A nipple with continuous uninterrupted threading is known as a close nipple. Nipples are commonly used with plumbing and hoses.

A reducer allows for a change in pipe size to meet hydraulic flow requirements of the system or adapt to existing piping of a different size.

Although reducers are usually concentric , eccentric reducers are used as needed to maintain the top- or bottom-of-pipe level. A double-tapped bushing is a fitting which serves as a reducer.

It is a sleeve similar to a close nipple , but is threaded on both its inner and outer circumferences. Like a reducer, a double-tapped bushing has two threads of different sizes.

A double-tapped bushing is more compact than a reducer, but not as flexible. While a double-tapped bushing has a smaller female thread concentric to a larger male thread and thus couples a smaller male end to a larger female , a reducer may have large and small ends of either gender.

If both ends are the same gender, it is a gender-changing reducer. There are similar fittings for both sweat and solvent joinery.

Since they are not "tapped" threaded , they are simply called reducing bushings. A tee, the most common pipe fitting, is used to combine or divide fluid flow.

It is available with female thread sockets, solvent-weld sockets or opposed solvent-weld sockets and a female-threaded side outlet.

Tees can connect pipes of different diameters or change the direction of a pipe run, or both. Available in a variety of materials, sizes and finishes, they may also be used to transport two-fluid mixtures.

This specialized type of tee fitting is used primarily in pressurized hydronic heating systems, to divert a portion of the flow from the main line into a side branch connected to a radiator or heat exchanger.

The diverter tee is designed to allow flow to continue in the main line, even when the side branch is shut down and not calling for heat.

Diverter tees have directional markings which must be heeded; a tee installed backwards will function very poorly. Crosses, also known as four-way fittings or cross branch lines , have one inlet and three outlets or vice versa , and often have solvent-welded socket or female-threaded ends.

Cross fittings may stress pipes as temperatures change, because they are at the center of four connection points.

A tee is steadier than a cross; it behaves like a three-legged stool, and a cross behaves like a four-legged stool. Geometrically , any three non- collinear points can self-consistently define a plane; three legs are inherently stable, whereas four points overdetermine a plane, and can be inconsistent, resulting in physical stress on a fitting.

Crosses are common in fire sprinkler systems where stress caused by thermal expansion is not generally an issue , [ why?

One cross fitting is more expensive than two tees. Caps, usually liquid- or gas-tight, cover the otherwise open end of a pipe.

A cap attaches to the exterior of a pipe, and may have a solvent-weld socket end or a female-threaded interior.

The exterior of an industrial cap may be round, square, rectangular, U- or I-shaped, or may have a handgrip. If a solvent-weld cap is used to provide for a future connection point, several inches of pipe must be left before the cap; when the cap is cut off for the future connection, enough pipe must remain to allow a new fitting to be glued onto it.

A barb or hose barb , which connects flexible hose or tubing to pipes, typically has a male-threaded end which mates with female threads.

The other end of the fitting has a single- or multi-barbed tube—a long tapered cone with ridges, which is inserted into a flexible hose.

An adjustable worm drive screw clamp or other type of clamp is often added, to keep the hose from slipping off the barbed tube.

Barb fittings can be made of brass for hot-water applications, and plastic may be used for cold water; brass is considered more durable for heavy-duty use.

The barb fitting may be elbow-shaped or straight. Valves stop or regulate the flow of liquids or gases. They are categorized by application, such as isolation, throttling, and non-return.

Isolation valves are used to temporarily disconnect part of a piping system, to allow maintenance or repair, for example.

Isolation valves are typically left in either a fully open or fully closed position. A given isolation valve may be in place for many years without being operated, but must be designed to be readily operable whenever needed, including emergency use.

Throttling valves are used to control the amount or pressure of a fluid allowed to pass through, and are designed to withstand the stress and wear caused by this type of operation.

Because they may wear out in this usage, they are often installed alongside isolation valves which can temporarily disconnect a failing throttling valve from the rest of the system, so it can be refurbished or replaced.

Non-return or check valves allow free flow of a fluid in one direction, but prevent its flow in a reverse direction. They are often seen in drainage or sewage systems, but may also be used in pressurized systems.

Because they operate at low pressure and rely on gravity to move fluids and entrained solids , drain-waste-vent systems use fittings whose interior surfaces are as smooth as possible.

The fittings may be "belled" expanded slightly in diameter or otherwise shaped to accommodate the insertion of pipe or tubing without forming a sharp interior ridge that might catch debris or accumulate material, and cause a clog or blockage.

Underground piping systems for landscaping drainage or the disposal of stormwater or groundwater also use low-pressure gravity flow, so fittings for these systems resemble larger-scale DWV fittings.

With high peak-flow volumes, the design and construction of these systems may resemble those of storm sewers. Fittings for central vacuum systems are similar to DWV fittings, but are usually of thinner and lighter construction because the weight of the materials conveyed is less.

Vacuum-system designs share with DWV designs the need to eliminate internal ridges, burrs, sharp turns, or other obstructions which might create clogs.

Slip-joint fittings are frequently used in kitchen, bathroom and tub drainage systems. Many slip fittings may be tightened or loosened by hand, for easier access to residential drainpipe systems for example, to clean out a trap or access a drain line past a trap.

DWV elbows are usually long-radius "sweep" types. To reduce flow resistance and solid deposits when the direction of flow is changed, they use a shallow curve with a large radius of curvature.

Central vacuum system inlet fittings are intentionally designed with a tighter radius of curvature than those of other bends in the system.

If vacuumed debris becomes stuck it will jam at the inlet, where it is easy to find and remove. A closet flange the drainpipe flange to which a flush toilet is attached is a specialized flange designed to be flush with the floor, allowing a toilet to be installed above it.

The flange must be mechanically strong to accommodate slight misalignments or movements, and resist corrosion.

Clean-outs are fittings with removable elements, allowing access to drains without the removal of plumbing fixtures. Since clean-out augers are limited in length, clean-outs should be placed in accessible locations at regular intervals throughout a drainage system including outside the building.

Minimum requirements are typically at the end of each branch in piping, just ahead of each water closet, at the base of each vertical stack and inside and outside the building in the main drain or sewer.

Clean-outs usually have screw-on caps or screw-in plugs. They are also known as "rodding eyes", because of the eye-shaped cover plates often used on external versions.

A trap primer automatically injects water into a trap , maintaining a water seal to keep sewer gas out of buildings. It must be installed in an easily accessible place for adjustment, replacement, and repair.

A trap primer, a specialized valve , is usually connected to a clean-water supply in addition to a DWV system. A combination tee combo tee, combo wye, tee wye, long-sweep wye, or combi is a tee with a gradually curving central connecting joint: A sanitary tee has a curved center section.

In drainage systems, it is primarily used to connect horizontal drains including fixture trap arms to vertical drains. The center connection is generally to the pipe leading to a trap the trap arm.

It must not connect a vertical drain to a horizontal drain, because of the likelihood that solids will accumulate at the bottom of the junction and cause a blockage.

Also called a tee with diverter baffle, a waste tee or an end-outlet tee, it typically connects waste lines before they enter the trap and has a baffle to keep water from one waste pipe from entering the other at the connection.

This fitting differs from a standard cross in that two of the ports have curved inlets. Although it has been used in the past for connecting the drains of back-to-back fixtures such as back-to-back sinks , some current codes—including the Uniform Plumbing Code in the United States—prohibit the use of this fitting for that purpose and require a double-fixture fitting double combination wye to minimize wastewater from one side flowing into the other.

A fitting with three openings, a wye joins or creates branch lines. It is a waste-fitting tee in which the side inlet pipe enters at a degree angle, or an angle other than 90 degrees.

A standard wye is a Y-shaped fitting which allows one pipe to be joined to another at a 45 degree angle.

Wyes are similar to tees, except for the angling of the branch line to reduce friction and turbulence. They are commonly used to attach a vertical drainpipe to a horizontal one.

The connection is typically at a degree, rather than 90 degrees; if a branch turns out further at the end to 90 degrees perpendicular , the fitting becomes a combo tee.

A wye may also be used to split a branch line equally in two directions, such as the splitting of a main line into two smaller branches.

Wyes also have industrial applications. Although low-priced wyes are often spot-welded , industrial-strength wyes are flash-welded at each seam.

In long-distance pipeline applications, a wye is used for pigging to maintain flow. This fitting also known as a "bungalow fitting" or a "cottage fitting" is a sanitary T that allows two trap arms to be connected at the same level.

It is for keeping stack-vented fixtures high to the joist space and thus conserving head room in a basement. As the water closet must be the lowest fixture, the smaller side outlet usually used to connect the bathtub trap arm enters slightly above the larger connection.

Hydraulic systems use high fluid pressure, such as the hydraulic actuators for bulldozers and backhoes. Their hydraulic fittings are designed and rated for much greater pressure than that experienced in general piping systems, and they are generally not compatible with those used in plumbing.

Hydraulic fittings are designed and constructed to resist high-pressure leakage and sudden failure. Much of the work of installing a piping or plumbing system involves making leakproof, reliable connections, and most piping requires mechanical support against gravity and other forces such as wind loads and earthquakes which might disrupt an installation.

Fasteners join, or affix, two or more objects. Although they are usually used to attach pipe and fittings to mechanical supports in buildings, they do not connect the pipes to each other.

Fasteners commonly used with piping are a stud bolt with nuts usually fully threaded, with two heavy, hexagonal nuts ; a machine bolt and nut; or a powder-actuated tool PAT fastener usually a nail or threaded stud , driven into concrete or masonry.

A threaded pipe has a screw thread at one or both ends for assembly. Steel pipe is often joined with threaded connections; tapered threads are cut into the end of the pipe, sealant is applied in the form of thread-sealing compound or thread seal tape also known as PTFE or Teflon tape and the pipe is threaded into a threaded fitting with a pipe wrench.

Threaded steel pipe is widely used in buildings to convey natural gas or propane fuel, and is a popular choice in fire sprinkler systems due to its resistance to mechanical damage and high heat.

Threaded steel pipe may still be used in high-security locations, because it is more resistant to vandalism, more difficult to remove, and its scrap value is lower than copper or brass.

Assembling threaded steel pipe takes skill and planning to allow lengths of pipe to be screwed together in sequence. Most threaded-pipe systems require the use of strategically located pipe-union fittings in final assembly.

Threaded steel pipe is heavy, and requires adequate attachment to support surfaces. Despite its thick walls steel pipe is no longer preferred for conveying drinking water, because corrosion can cause leakage especially at threaded joints, and deposits on internal surfaces will eventually restrict flow.

Solvent welding is usually used with a sleeve-type joint to connect pipe and fittings made of the same or compatible material.

Unlike metal welding, solvent welding is relatively easy to perform although care is needed to make reliable joints.

Solvents typically used for plastics are usually toxic [ citation needed ] and may be carcinogenic [ citation needed ] and flammable , requiring adequate ventilation.

To make a solder connection, a chemical flux is applied to the inner sleeve of a joint and the pipe is inserted. The joint is then heated using a propane or MAPP gas torch, solder is applied to the heated joint and the molten solder is drawn into the joint by capillary action as the flux vaporizes.

Where many connections must be made in a short period of time such as plumbing of a new building , soldering is quicker and less expensive joinery than compression or flare fittings.

A degree of skill is needed to make a number of reliable soldered joints quickly. If flux residue is thoroughly cleaned, soldering can produce a long-lasting connection at low cost.

However, the use of an open flame for heating joints can present fire and health hazards to building occupants, and requires adequate ventilation.

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